We Review the Best of the Latest Books

ISSN 1934-6557

July 2013, Issue #171

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A President in Yellowstone: The F. Jay Haynes Photographic Album of Chester Arthur's 1883 Expedition by Frank H. Goodyear III, general editor, B. Byron Price (The Charles M. Russell Center Series on Art and Photography of the American West Series Vol. II: University of Oklahoma Press)

My Life with Kangaroos: A Deaf Woman's Remarkable Story by Doris Herrmann, with Michael Gaida & Theres Jöhl, translated by Paul Foster (Gallaudet University Press)

Handbook on Energy and Climate Change edited by Roger Fouquet (Elgar Original Reference Series: Edward Elgar)

Conquering the Chaos: Win in India, Win Everywhere by Ravi Venkatesan (Harvard Business Review Press)

Stewardship: Choosing Service Over Self Interest by Peter Block (Berrett-Koehler)

Great Cruelties Have Been Reported: The 1544 Investigation of the Coronado Expedition by Richard Flint (University of New Mexico Press)

Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi: Volume 1: Essays on America's Civil War edited by Lawrence L. Hewitt, with Arthur W. Bergeron Jr. and Thomas E. Schott, with series editor Gary D. Jointer (The Western Theater in the Civil War Series: The University of Tennessee Press)

Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present edited by David J. Minderhout (Stories of the Susquehanna Valley Series, Vol. 1: Bucknell University Press)

Between Giants: The Battle for the Baltics in World War II by Prit Buttar (Osprey Publishing)

Heavenly Hydrangeas: A Practical Guide for the Home Gardener by Joan Harrison (Schiffer Publishing)

Brick City: Global Icons to Make from LEGO by Warren Elsmore (Barron’s Educational Series)

Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach by Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform, Committee on Law and Justice, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and National Research Council (The National Academies Press)

Public Health Law Research: Theory and Methods edited by Alexander C. Wagenaar and Scott C. Burris (Jossey-Bass

Shadows in the Cotswolds by Rebecca Tope (Cotswold Mysteries Series: Allison & Busby)

Extraesophageal Manifestations of GERD edited by Anthony J. DiMarino Jr. MD and Sidney Cohen MD (Slack Incorporated)

Couples of the Bible: A One-Year Devotional Study to Draw You Closer to God and Each Other by Robert and Bobbie Wolgemuth (Zondervan)

Sharing Peace: Mennonites and Catholics in Conversation edited by Gerald W. Schlabach and Margaret R. Pfeil (A Michael Glazier Book: Liturgical Press)

African Temples of the Anunnaki: The Lost Technologies of the Gold Mines of Enki by Michael Tellinger (Bear & Co.)

Moon Living Abroad in Brazil by Michael Sommers (Living Abroad Series: Avalon Travel Publishing)


Arts & Photography / History / Americas

A President in Yellowstone: The F. Jay Haynes Photographic Album of Chester Arthur's 1883 Expedition by Frank H. Goodyear III, general editor, B. Byron Price (The Charles M. Russell Center Series on Art and Photography of the American West Series Vol. II: University of Oklahoma Press)

On the morning of July 30, 1883, President Chester A. Arthur embarked on a trip of historic proportions. His destination was Yellowstone National Park, established by an act of Congress only eleven years earlier. No sitting president had ever traveled this far west. Arthur’s host and primary guide would be Philip H. Sheridan, the famed Union general. Also slated to join the expedition was a young photographer, Frank Jay Haynes. A President in Yellowstone showcases Haynes’s remarkable photographic album from their six-week journey. 

A premier nineteenth-century landscape photographer, F. Jay Haynes, as he was known professionally, originally compiled the leather-bound album as a commemorative piece. As only six copies are known to exist, it has rarely been seen. The album’s 104 images are accompanied by captions written by General Sheridan’s brother, Colonel Michael V. Sheridan, who wrote daily dispatches that were distributed by the Associated Press.

In his introduction to A President in Yellowstone, historian Frank H. Goodyear III provides background about the excursion and explains the historic and aesthetic significance of Haynes’s photographs. He then recreates Arthur’s journey by reintroducing Haynes’s stunning images – along with Sheridan’s original captions – including views of the Tetons and other landmarks; portraits of President Arthur, General Sheridan, and fellow travelers engaged in activities along the route; and images of the Shoshone and Arapaho leaders who gathered to greet the visiting party.

Goodyear is Co-director of the Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, Maine. He previously served as curator of photographs at the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution.

As Goodyear explains in the introduction, Arthur's Yellowstone trip was controversial because of public fears concerning the president's health and the arduous nature of the journey. Despite the safety precautions ensured by General Sheridan, critics felt it was irresponsible for a president to take such risks and to leave Washington for such an extended period. Furthermore, Yellowstone itself was still a mystery in the public imagination. As it turned out, the presidential trip coincided with a sustained national debate about the purpose, funding, and preservation of Yellowstone.

Frank H. Goodyear III has done historians and the public at large an enormous favor by producing A President in Yellowstone, which reveals the long-unavailable photographs by Frank Jay Haynes of his 1883 trip through Yellowstone with President Chester A. Arthur. In addition, Goodyear places the trip in fascinating context, adding many details to existing accounts. This book is an important contribution to western Americana. – Lee H. Whittlesey, Historian, National Park Service, Yellowstone Center for Resources

A commemorative travel album here becomes the focus of a fascinating and wide-ranging argument about presidential politics and the invention of Yellowstone National Park. As Frank Goodyear unpacks the photographs that document President Chester A. Arthur’s western trip of 1883, he explores the relationship between the chief executive and the press, and the tensions between conservationists and developers. His characters include captains of industry and defeated Indian leaders, eastern tourists and ambitious government bureaucrats, who together helped shape the emergence of the modern West. This is a lovely piece of microhistory, a small focused story that speaks to much larger political and cultural concerns. – Martha A. Sandweiss, Professor of History, Princeton University, and author of Print the Legend: Photography and the American West

Elegant and fascinating, published on the occasion of the reopening of the Haynes Photography Shop in Yellowstone, A President in Yellowstone offers a unique entry into the park's storied past. In addition, the volume reveals Haynes's significance as an interpreter of the park. Known as Yellowstone's ‘official photographer,’ Haynes gained an exclusive franchise after the trip to sell images in the park. His life and photographs are crucial to a fuller understanding of the history and legendary allure of America's first national park.

Biological Sciences / Mammals / Memoirs & Biographies / Disabled

My Life with Kangaroos: A Deaf Woman's Remarkable Story by Doris Herrmann, with Michael Gaida & Theres Jöhl, translated by Paul Foster (Gallaudet University Press)

Doris Herrmann was born deaf in 1933 in Basel, Switzerland, and from the age of three, she possessed a mystical attraction to kangaroos. In My Life with Kangaroos she tells how she recalls seeing them at that age for the first time at the Basel Zoo, and spending every spare moment visiting them from then on. Eventually, her fascination grew into a passionate study of their behavior. Her dedication caught the attention of the zookeepers who provided her greater access to these extraordinary animals. Despite her challenges with communication, Herrmann wrote a scientific paper about the kangaroo’s pouch hygiene when raising a joey. Soon, experts from around the world came to visit this precocious deaf girl who knew about kangaroos.
Herrmann appreciated the opportunities opening up to her, but her real dream was to travel to Australia to study kangaroos in the wild. For years she worked and yearned, until Dr. Karl H. Winkelsträter a renowned authority on kangaroos, suggested an independent study in Australia at a place called Pebbly Beach. In 1969, at the age of 35, Herrmann finally traveled to the native land of kangaroos. During the next four decades, she would make many more trips to observe and write about kangaroos.
My Life with Kangaroos explores every facet of Herrmann’s connection to these engaging marsupials. Her single-minded devotion not only made her a leading self-made scholar on kangaroos, it transformed her own personality and her relationships with others. As she forged bonds with kangaroos named Dora, Jacqueline, Manuela, and many others, she engendered great affection and respect in the people around her, truly a remarkable story of success.

As Herrmann says in the preface to My Life with Kangaroos, in some fairy tales, animals talk, human beings are bewitched, and other strange things occur twixt heaven and earth. Moreover, the people in them frequently play roles in which the limitations that constrain them in life, either material or physical, play a decisive part. These characters have access to invisible powers that watch over them and determine their fate. Many of these actors are people we might call naive, yet they possess what we would call a natural simplicity, a certain uninhibited candor.

Herman says, “I cannot say for a moment that I am an expert on fairy tales, for indeed I have not read many and, apart from this, regard myself as a scientist who prizes sobriety. Having said that, however, when I look back at certain events in my life, it seems as though magical forces have been at work from time to time. Simply to pass them off as coincidence is rather difficult, especially in view of the fact that a number of these events were revealed to me first in the form of a dream.

“… the older I become, the more clearly I have come to realize that many of the steps I have undertaken – not only those pursued in personal crises but also those embarked upon at sunny times in my life, have been guided by an invisible force. To be unerringly guided – this indeed is something I have experienced several times.”

Although it is true that she has been deaf since birth and that her vision has deteriorated almost to total blindness in the meantime, these restrictions have in fact been the means whereby she has learned to concentrate on what for her was essential. At the same time, these disabilities have been instrumental in helping her gain an altered perception of the world.

She feels she has her disability to thank for that finer sense of perception when it comes to discerning the mysterious, imperceptible bond that exists between human and animal and natural forces in general. Put somewhat paradoxically, it seems that out of the inability to hear and the loss of sight into the bargain, she has developed a sixth sense. Despite the fact that, due to her deafness, she has never been able to properly appreciate language, she has, nevertheless, been able to comprehend one of its wonders. From the time she was first able to learn how to form words and syllables with her voice, she also began to grasp the fact that meaningful sound not only links one's mind to the real world of things but also pertains to the realms of thought and feeling. How much more of a torture it is, she says, to encounter nameless things that are full of life, which she has experienced several times and describes in My Life with Kangaroos.

It was the kangaroo – or the spirit of the kangaroo – which so enthralled her in her childhood and later shaped her life into a kind of mental symbiosis. One can say that the kangaroo has in many ways dominated her life. On the other hand, it has provided her with an even keel in difficult situations. She appreciates every bit of assistance she has received from this animal, the good deeds, gifts that her soul comprehended directly. It is just this that she refers to as the fairytale aspect of her life. The powers at work during her association with kangaroos in the end remain an enigma.

My Life with Kangaroos explores every facet of Herrmann’s connection to kangaroos. This is a story of transformation, truly a remarkable story of success.

Business & Investing / Environmental Science / Reference

Handbook on Energy and Climate Change edited by Roger Fouquet (Elgar Original Reference Series: Edward Elgar)

Political efforts to address climate change have developed greatly in the last 20 years. In 1992, at the Rio Summit, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was established. Then, in 1997, despite its flaws, the Kyoto Protocol set targets to curb greenhouse gas emissions on a number of industrialized countries emissions between 2008 and 2012. These developments have been driven by advances in the natural and social sciences over the last 30 years, coupled with more recent media attention and NGO campaigns. They have also coincided with a rising public awareness of the existence of climate change and its physical and economic threats, creating a broader demand for climate stability.

Constructed around the objectives of displaying some of the best of current thinking in the economics of energy and climate change, and of encouraging the formulation of new questions, Handbook on Energy and Climate Change brings together many of the world’s leading and most innovative minds in the field to cover issues related to:

  • Fossil fuel and electricity markets.
  • Environment-related energy policy.
  • International climate agreements.
  • Carbon mitigation policies.
  • Low-carbon behavior, growth and governance.

Contributors to Handbook on Energy and Climate Change include: J.E. Aldy, E.B. Barbier, A. Bowen, J. Chevallier, C. de Perthuis, J. Evans, N. Eyre, M. Fillipini, R. Fouquet, S. Gabriel, A. Gago, C. Gennaioli, J. Gowdy, C. Haftendorn, J.D. Hamilton, M. Hanemann, I. Hascic, D.F. Hendry, C. Hepburn, B. Holtsmark, F. Holz, C. Hope, L. Hunt, H.D. Jacoby, M. Jefferson, N. Johnstone, J.G. Kassakian, C. Kemfert, S. Kverndokk, X. Labandeira, H. Lee, H. Llavador, G. Lovellette, R. Martin, R. McKitrick, A. Moe, M. Muûls, I.W.H. Parry, M. Pollitt, F. Pretis, T. O'Garra, A. Ramos, C. Robinson, J.E. Roemer, K.E. Rosendahl, R. Schmalensee, I. Shaorshadze, J. Silvestre, P. Stevens, R. Tol, R. Trotignon, M. Tsygankova, G.C. van Kooten, and C. von Hirschhausen. Editor Roger Fouquet is a Principal Research Fellow in the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at the London School of Economics.

While natural scientists identified the relationship between greenhouse gas concentrations and climate change, and highlighted many of the threats, social scientists and particularly economists have played a crucial role in developing strategies for mitigating climate change. Economists have been influential in arguing that the costs of mitigation may not be as great as many industrialists claimed and that there may be substantial benefits. They have also proposed mechanisms for trading responsibilities and credits related to greenhouse gas emission reductions, which have been a central tool in agreements on targets related to the Kyoto Protocol and certain national climate policies. At a national level, many governments have introduced taxes to discourage the consumption of high-carbon energy sources. In other words, economists have become highly influential in the global efforts to achieve climate stability.

Yet, to Fouquet, as told in the introduction to Handbook on Energy and Climate Change, this apparent success hides a potential problem. One of the impressions he says he has formed from talks at conferences, working papers and journal articles over the last decade is that the shift has been associated with a perceived decline in the number of new ideas being presented – intellectual `blockbusters' that `challenge or influence the boundaries of knowledge and ... change the way we think about problems'. The hypotheses proposed in Handbook on Energy and Climate Change, are that (i) during the 1990s, there was a growth in research originality in the economics of energy and climate change, (ii) during the 2000s, there was a rapid growth in research production in this field, and (iii) in the last five to seven years, either the originality of research has declined or the originality relative to the quantity has declined.

This may be an inevitable process. After a period of great ideas, which created several new `research fronts' at the intersection of energy and environmental economics, economists are in a phase of refining and applying them. This is a crucial aspect of developing research and converting economic ideas into useable tools for policy makers, and can be responsible for a large research output. However, eventually, declining marginal returns (from using and developing these ideas) tend to set in. In time, new `research fronts' need to be developed for the discipline to generate new knowledge and be of long-term value.

Indeed, despite the successes of economic analysis in this field, it is clear that many energy and climate change problems remain that economists (and other social and natural scientists) are not managing to fully resolve. Thus it is proposed that economists investigating energy and climate change issues need to develop new `research fronts'.

Handbook on Energy and Climate Change has been constructed around the objectives of displaying some of the best of current thinking in the economics of energy and climate change, and encouraging the formulation of new questions and the development of new ideas.

This handbook is far from an exhaustive survey of the issues related to energy and climate change. It focuses on the economic aspects rather than approaching the issues from more technical or other social angles. It also focuses on the interaction between energy and climate change, and accompanies similar endeavors that focus on either energy or climate change. Handbook on Energy and Climate Change offers insights into where the literature has reached – after the concerns in the 1960s about the long-run relationship between economic growth and resource scarcity, to the many new `research fronts' created from the 1970s and to the 1990s, to the explosion in research output since 2005 – and where it might be going.

Some of us have spent our professional lives on energy and climate change but any new researcher or policy maker must find it daunting to even approach the subject. If so, this encyclopedic Handbook provides a wonderful and necessary introduction. It is creative and up to date, yet also takes the reader by the hand and introduces one topic after another while providing much of the historical context that is so necessary to a deeper understanding. – Thomas Sterner, Visiting Chief Economist, Environmental Defense Fund

Handbook on Energy and Climate Change reviews many key issues in the economics of energy and climate change, raising new questions and offering solutions that might help to minimize the threat of energy-induced climate change. Serving as a timely and indispensable guide to one of the fastest-growing fields of economics, it is an invaluable resource, which will strongly appeal to students, academics and policy makers interested in energy, environmental and climate change issues.

Business & Investing / Management & Leadership

Conquering the Chaos: Win in India, Win Everywhere by Ravi Venkatesan (Harvard Business Review Press)

India is on the minds of business leaders everywhere. Within a few decades, India will be the world’s most populous nation and one of its largest economies. But it is also a complex and challenging market, with a reputation for corruption, uncertainty, and stultifying bureaucracy. But India is not a market that can be ignored. So why take a chance in this extraordinary and complex region? What does it take to win in India? How do readers deal with the chaos – and even prosper from it?
Ravi Venkatesan, the former Chairman of Microsoft India, in Conquering the Chaos offers inside advice on how readers can overcome the unique challenges of the Indian market. He argues that chaotic India is in fact an archetype for most emerging markets, many of which present similar challenges but not the same potential. Succeeding in India therefore becomes a litmus test for one’s ability to succeed in other emerging markets. If readers can win in India, they can win everywhere.
Hard as these markets are, Venkatesan in Conquering the Chaos says, for most multinational firms the bigger challenge to success in emerging markets may well be the internal culture and mindset at headquarters. The unwillingness to make a long-term commitment to the new market or to trust local leadership, combined with the propensity to rigidly replicate the products, business models, and operating systems that have worked at home drives many companies to a ‘midway trap’ that results in India remaining an irrelevantly small contributor to global growth and profits.
Prior to joining Microsoft, as the Chairman of Cummins India, Venkatesan led its transformation into the country’s leading provider of power solutions and engines. Venkatesan is a director on the boards of AB Volvo and Infosys and a member of the advisory board of Bunge Limited. He also serves on Harvard Business School’s Global Alumni Board. Venkatesan is a founder and Chairman of Social Venture Partners India, a network of engaged leaders attempting to address complex social issues through venture philanthropy.

Combining his personal experience with in-depth research and interviews with CEOs and senior leaders at dozens of companies – including Nokia, GE, JCB, Dell, Honeywell, Volvo, Bosch, Deere, Unilever, and Nestlé –Venkatesan in Conquering the Chaos shows readers how to tackle slowing growth, policy uncertainty, and corruption and enable their firm to thrive in India.

Ravi Venkatesan's clear and candid look at doing business in India should be on the reading list of any business leader who wants to better understand India and other emerging markets. Conquering the Chaos is insightful and thoroughly readable. – Bill Gates, Chairman and Cofounder, Microsoft

Ravi Venkatesan has written a compelling account of how to create value in India in ways that can also be transferred to many other markets. He provides a unique and practical perspective on how to execute on the promise of emerging markets – even in tough times – through deep research on several companies and rich insights from his own leadership of Microsoft and Cummins in India. – Dominic Barton, Managing Director, McKinsey & Company

Conquering the Chaos is a one-of-its-kind book on winning in emerging markets, especially India. Ravi Venkatesan deeply understands the pulse of the Indian consumer and the dynamics of the market. The author's experiences make the book an extremely stimulating read. A must-read for all leaders of multinationals aspiring to capitalize on emerging markets. – N.R. Narayana Murthy, Founder and Chairman Emeritus, Infosys

Ravi Venkatesan, in his easy-to-read, fact-filled book, based on his own unparalleled experience and knowledge of India, presents an unvarnished and balanced view of the country's tremendous challenges and opportunities, both as a market and as a production base. India in this century will be the world's most populous nation, perhaps the world's largest economy, and certainly the most complex one. If you want to succeed in the twenty-first century, you must succeed in India, and Ravi Venkatesan will help you do just that. – Louis Schweitzer, Former Chairman of Renault and Astrazeneca; Director, BNP, Volvo and L’Oreal

An outstanding, informative book that is much more than a manual for winning in India. It is a manual for winning in every emerging market. I wish I had had it at my disposal three years ago, when I started in my role. – Jouh L. Flannery, President and CEO, GE India

If readers want to succeed in the twenty-first century, they must succeed in emerging markets. Conquering the Chaos is a practical book, written by one of India’s most respected CEOs, which gives readers the keys to win in India, other emerging markets, and beyond.

Business & Investing / Management & Leadership

Stewardship: Choosing Service Over Self Interest by Peter Block (Berrett-Koehler)

As a successful managing strategy for corporate, governmental, and nonprofit organizations, ‘stewardship’ is, fundamentally, the spirit of partnership and service. Stewardship explains how to integrate the management of work and the doing of work to redistribute purpose and power within an organization.

Readers learn how to:

  • Put meaning into the ideas of service and accountability.
  • Create a workplace where every member thinks and acts as an owner.
  • Reintegrate the managing of work with the doing of work – everyone does real work.
  • Replace self-interest, dependency, and control with service, responsibility, and partnership.
  • Raise the productive capacity of work units and economic success of organizations.
  • Find practical ways for democracy to thrive in the workplace.
  • Refocus staff groups to serve core workers and give choice to the line.
  • Overturn pay and performance appraisal practices that support a managerial class system.

Bestselling author Peter Block is cofounder of the new School for Managing and has been at the center of changing organizations for twenty-five years, consulting to businesses, schools, and governments around the world. He is a partner in Designed Learning, a training company that offers workshops designed to build the skills outlined in his books.

According to Joel Henning in the foreword to Stewardship, the great institutions which produce wealth, which put meals on the table, provide shelter for families, medical care, and all the other pieces that make up readers’ lives, have made a bet. The bet has been on an idea. The idea is that compliance and control are the best means to insure future survival and prosperity. Of course a benevolent spirit is part of the execution of the idea, but compliance is still the idea. It didn't work in Eastern Europe, where it created a ‘drab gray society.’ But in the end what overcame the governing institutions was purposeful, dedicated, impassioned human beings longing for something better than a world of safety through compliance.

Success in the future depends on organizations that can create new knowledge that results in innovative products and services in the marketplace. Success in the future depends on people who have a passion for the business, who generate new ideas, ways of doing things that result in new knowledge that results in innovative and unique products in the marketplace. If these are the demands of future survival or prosperity, do we want to place our bet on compliance, watching, and trying harder?

Stewardship offers an alternative. It is about a revolution of ideas, and it places its hope in democratic principle. It is a book that calls into question the governance structures and systems of our economic institutions. It attempts to make relevant to our economic survival the integration of the best of the human spirit with the demands for survival in the marketplace.

According to Block in the preface to Stewardship, the central idea of this book, stewardship, has the potential to reintegrate parts of ourselves and move beyond the debates in our organizations. In this way it is a book of reconciliation. Stewardship focuses on aspects of the workplace that have been most difficult to change, namely the distribution of power, purpose, and rewards. It is these dimensions of organizations that need to be reformed if we are to become whole in our efforts to strengthen ourselves.

We need a way of reconciling the promise of our programs with the experience of our day-to-day lives. Stewardship is the umbrella idea which promises the means of achieving fundamental change in the way we govern our institutions. Stewardship is to hold something in trust for another. Historically, stewardship was a means to protect a kingdom while those rightfully in charge were away, or, more often, to govern for the sake of an underage king. The underage king for us is the next generation. We choose service over self-interest most powerfully when we build the capacity of the next generation to govern themselves.

Stewardship is defined in Stewardship as the choice to preside over the orderly distribution of power. This means giving people at the bottom and the boundaries of the organization choice over how to serve a customer, a citizen, a community. It is accountability without control or compliance.

Stewardship, then, is for those of us living questions of purpose and survival. It is not written from the point of view of consultants, experts in managing change, and experienced practitioners worried about changing others. The book takes the viewpoint of core workers, staff people, supervisors, managers, and executives. People who are in the middle of it all. It is for activists in school reform, health care, government under fire, as well as businesses in the private sector. It is for people who have decided that their organization needs reforming, and have doubts whether what they are doing now is enough.

Stewardship is divided into three parts. Part I, Trading Your Kingdom for a Horse, is about the basic concept and the promise of stewardship and the limitations of leadership. It dramatizes the choices we face and the high wire we dance upon. Part II, The Redistribution of Power, Purpose, and Wealth, gets practical. It is for the engineer in each of us that asks at some point in every conversation, "Enough theory, what does it look like? What do we do differently tomorrow, first thing at 7:00 a.m.?" In this second part resides the vision of stewardship in action. Special attention is given to staff groups like finance and human resources. Part III, The Triumph of Hope over Experience, goes into some of the details about how to get there. What is a logical sequence for thinking about the reform process? Also it is about how to handle cynics and victims and people who do not want to take the trip. It often does not matter what the trip is, there are just some people that do not want to take it.

Block, author of The Empowered Manager, which offers an individualistic approach to ‘empowerment,’ here explains this movement on a much broader scale, offering his original and profound new view on running organizations. Block shows executives how to move from controlling and directing to his vision of shared governance, partnership, and total ownership of a business by all team members. This concept represents no less than a complete redistribution of power and a total restructuring, which will probably confound most present-day managers. Block transcends all extant leadership literature with this primary source on the organizational dynamics of the future, which will soon be copied. He has heard an as-yet-unknown muse and conceived the organizational structure of the 21st century. Guaranteed to be controversial; strongly recommended. – Dale Farris, Library Journal
Stewardship challenges all managers and leaders of organizations to change their fundamental approach and beliefs about how to do their job. And it provides a clear path for action for those who accept the challenge. – Morley A. Winograd, Sales Vice President, Western Region, AT&T

Stewardship provides clear and practical guidance for individuals and institutions seeking to make meaningful change in their management beliefs and behaviors. It has been valuable in reshaping my thinking for the tasks of leading our organization into the future. – Robert D. Haas, Chairman and CEO, Levi Strauss & Co.

A revolutionary book that redefines what being `value added' means in an organization and turns around the traditional thinking about who works for whom. – Edward L. Glotzbach, Vice President, Customer Services, Midwest, Southwestern Bell Telephone

Stewardship is a fantastic book! I have read the book, reread it, highlighted it, read my highlights, and taken notes on my highlights. I will never look at leadership and organizations in the same way again. – David W. Cox, Chair, Department of Educational Administration and Secondary Education, Arkansas State University

Every educator should read Stewardship. It provides a powerful vision of how schools and classrooms should work if we care about our children and our future. – Lawrence W. Lezotte, Senior Vice President, Effective Schools Products, Ltd.

There is still room for excitement and innovation in business today, as this book illustrates. – Working Smart

Stewardship is must reading for any public sector leader committed to reinventing a public agency. Peter Block is relentless, and right, in his insistence that power and privilege be redistributed to employees if our organizations, including government, are to work again. – Doug Ross, Director, Progressive Foundation

[Block] somehow successfully combines the practicality of an entrepreneur with the spirituality of a New Age philosopher, and his approach might inspire both the open-minded MBA and the idealistic frontline assembly worker. – Booklist

Stewardship is a book about helplessness and leadership, about democracy and tyranny. It is about the human spirit and profit, about survival and prosperity. What makes this book important is the introduction of a new idea into the marketplace of business and industry. Not only is this work an alternative, it is unique. It is the antithesis to the current thesis in management and organizational theory.

History / Americas / 16th Century

Great Cruelties Have Been Reported: The 1544 Investigation of the Coronado Expedition by Richard Flint (University of New Mexico Press)

In 1540 Francisco Vazquez de Coronado led a large company of Europeans and Mexican Indians on a trek to what is now New Mexico in search of wealthy and populous places. In the course of more than two years the expedition encountered numerous indigenous groups, sometimes peacefully, sometimes with acrimony and violence. Shortly after the expedition's return to Mexico City its treatment of native peoples while in the north was denounced to King Carlos I. To investigate those allegations, the king appointed lawyer Lorenzo de Tejada, oidor (judge) of the Royal Audiencia of New Spain. Tejada's charge was to determine who, among the members of the expedition, had been responsible for mistreatment of Indians of the Tierra Nueva.

The documents that record that investigation are at the heart of Great Cruelties Have Been Reported by Richard Flint. These depositions are as fresh as today's news. Published both in the original Spanish and in English translation, they provide a wealth of information about the Indians' responses to the Europeans and the attitudes of the Europeans toward the native peoples.

Among Flint's other works on the Coronado Expedition are No Settlement, No Conquest: A History of the Coronado Entrada and Documents of the Coronado Expedition.

According to Flint in Great Cruelties Have Been Reported, in the course of the sixteenth century scores of armed expeditions were mounted and carried out under Spanish direction throughout an expanding worldwide domain of asserted sovereignty: in Italy, Africa, the Canary Islands, South America, Central America, North America, and the Philippines. That aggressive expansion was undertaken not primarily to increase territorial limits, but first and foremost to bring all the world's people under the religious, political, and economic hegemony of a royal and noble elite that saw itself as divinely anointed and directed. Individual success in the enterprise of expansion was viewed both as progress toward the ultimate goal of universal rule and as confirmation of heavenly election. The subjugation of wealthy peoples was exquisitely confirmatory, since possession of riches was seen as a demonstration of supernatural favor. Thus the wondrously prosperous Mexica of central Mexico, Inca of Peru, Maya of Central America, and Filipinos of the Far East were all targeted and conquered during the 1500s.

Successful Spanish conquest altered radically and permanently indigenous peoples and their lifeways, sometimes eradicating both cultures and their practitioners. It also had profound effects on the conquerors themselves, remaking their society and transforming individuals. The case of New Mexico is typical; there, four attempted conquests preceded the final successful colonization nearly 60 years after the first attempt.

What effects did these transitory encounters between indigenous societies and agents of European paradigms have on both parties and how lasting were those effects? Were the events of unsuccessful conquest mere whirlwinds without persistent effect, insignificant to would-be conquerors and potential vassals alike? Great Cruelties Have Been Reported looks at the myriad effects of one failed sixteenth-century Spanish expedition of conquest with such questions in mind, the expedition launched by Antonio de Mendoza and led by Francisco Vazquez de Coronado from 1540-1542.

In 1949, the great historian and Coronado expedition scholar Herbert E. Bolton characterized Vazquez de Coronado and the expedition he led as ‘notably more humane’ and having ‘a finer sense of the rights and dignity of human beings’ than did other Spanish expeditions of the period. He stated categorically that "in the main the Coronado expedition had been quite exemplary – mild and gentle as compared with acts committed by Cortes, Pedrarias, Guzman, De Soto, or the Pizarros." These statements and Bolton's generally sanitized narration of the events of the expedition in his classic Coronado, Knight of Pueblos and Plains have given the impression to generations of readers that the native population of the Greater Southwest had little to complain about when it came to the Coronado expedition. The representation is made that the expedition caused the gentlest of ripples in the lives of native peoples of the Greater Southwest.

Nothing could be farther from the truth. Vazquez de Coronado himself may have been quite dutiful in observing the laws and directives that established a framework for Spanish conquest, but those laws and directives, even at their most humane, foresaw nothing less than the eradication of indigenous culture and the substitution of a Spanish Catholic culture, by force if necessary. Furthermore, Vazquez de Coronado was a very pragmatic leader, willing to suspend law and ordinance when the lives or comfort of Spaniards was at stake. And many of his subordinates disregarded laws and directives and saw to it that their leader never learned of their transgressions.

Fortunately, for the purpose at hand, an investigation into effects of the Coronado expedition to Tierra Nueva on the native peoples it sought to bring under Spanish dominion was conducted by Spanish officials in Nueva Espana only two years after the return of the disappointing thrust into the far north. The lengthy documents of that investigation record from the body of Great Cruelties Have Been Reported. The evidence from the 1544 testimony is compelling. The fact that the maestre de campo of the expedition was punished as a result of the investigation (very lightly though he was) attests to the official contemporary assessment of the expedition as unacceptably brutal. The investigating judge and the prosecutor lodged serious complaints. The expedition had tortured, executed, and terrorized American natives from what is today western Mexico to modern Kansas. It had destroyed native towns and scattered their populations. It had stolen and extorted possessions of Indian people. It had taken many Indian women for sexual gratification and involuntary service. By and large, the witnesses during the investigation made no attempt to disprove the complaints against the expedition. In fact, the issue of the investigation was not whether cruelty had occurred, but rather who committed and sanctioned it.

The evidence of the 1544 investigation is augmented and its scope and depth substantively broadened in Great Cruelties Have Been Reported by study of dozens of other contemporary Spanish documents dealing with the expedition as a whole and with individual participants in it. Furthermore, with a goal of adding a less (or at least differently) culturally biased source of information, Flint also liberally employs the findings of archeologists and ethnohistorians.

What emerges is a story of conflict and attempted accommodation, resistance, and attempted disengagement which, for example, realigned the balance of regional power and territory in the Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico, imported a significant Mesoamerican population into the Zuni pueblos, reinforced the Spanish hold on the northern fringe of Nueva Espana, resulted in massive death and suffering for the Tiwa Pueblos, confirmed and crystallized attitudes of the parties toward each other, discouraged and delayed Spanish designs on North America, essentially ended the career of a conscientious Spanish functionary, set the stage for establishment of privilege for a number of individuals within colonial Mexico, and consigned some participants in the expedition to lifelong poverty. The result is a cau­tionary tale about attempts at forced cultural transformation and the deep-seated and subtle nature of culturally based conflict.

As a result of this research into the lives of the witnesses, readers of Great Cruelties Have Been Reported have a much more detailed picture of the makeup of the expedition than has been available heretofore. They also discern some of the variety of attitudes, expectations, and allegiances that characterized the mass of the expedition. Prosopographical data on those directly concerned by the investigation and on the group of witnesses reveals the interplay of forces of political power, economic control, and assertion of a humanitarian ethos that combined to stimulate and shape the 1544 investigation. Simple and essentialized images of the expedition and resulting investigation typical of past scholarship yield to an increasingly intricate complexity. Flint’s research shows, for instance, that the viceroy and Vazquez de Coronado saw the investigation principally as a political challenge and orchestrated the investigation to assure minimal political damage.

The effects of the expedition on native groups prove to be equally as various and complex. Documentary and ethnographic evidence shows shifting results of interaction between members of the expedition and native individuals and groups. Particularly intriguing are the interactions between Mexican Indians (who, in point of fact, made up the bulk of the expedition) and Puebloans and other native peoples of Tierra Nueva. Among major geopolitical results of the encounter, Flint points to a significant reconfiguration of ethnic occupation of the middle Rio Grande Valley, as Keres Pueblos permanently pushed into the northern fringe of what had been Tiwa territory.

A superbly presented, scholarly, detailed historical analysis of not just the Spanish Coronado Expedition into the New World, but also the official investigation by Spanish officials after the Coronado Expedition's two-year duration. Focusing on the primary sources of the extensive documents recording this official investigation, Great Cruelties Have Been Reported unflinchingly surveys and reports the clash between worlds and cultures, the Spanish conquistadors and the Native American peoples. A solid, exhaustively researched, well reasoned, and smoothly written account. . . . strongly recommended. – Midwest Book Review

Fascinating, well researched, Great Cruelties Have Been Reported provides an unparalleled wealth of information about the European attitudes and the Indians’ responses.

History / Americas / Civil War / Biographies & Memoirs

Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi: Volume 1: Essays on America's Civil War edited by Lawrence L. Hewitt, with Arthur W. Bergeron Jr. and Thomas E. Schott, with series editor Gary D. Jointer (The Western Theater in the Civil War Series: The University of Tennessee Press)

Until relatively recently, conventional wisdom held that the Trans-Mississippi Theater was a backwater of the American Civil War. Scholarship in recent decades has corrected this oversight, and a growing number of historians agree that the events west of the Mississippi River proved integral to the outcome of the war. Nevertheless, generals in the Trans-Mississippi have received little attention compared to their eastern counterparts, and many remain mere footnotes to Civil War history. Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi features cutting-edge analyses of eight Southern generals – Thomas Hindman, Theophilus Holmes, Edmund Kirby Smith, Mosby Monroe Parsons, John Marmaduke, Thomas James Churchill, Thomas Green, and Joseph Orville Shelby – providing a new perspective on the Confederate high command.
The editor is Lawrence Lee Hewitt, formerly professor of history at Southeastern Louisiana University, assisted by Arthur W. Bergeron Jr. and Thomas E. Schott. Until his death in 2010 Bergeron was a reference historian with the US Army Military History Institute. Schott was a historian for the US Air Force and US Special Operations Command.

Although the Trans-Mississippi has long been considered a dumping ground for failed generals from other regions, the essays presented in Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi demolish that myth, showing instead that, with a few notable exceptions, Confederate commanders west of the Mississippi were homegrown, not imported, and compared well with their more celebrated peers elsewhere. With its virtually nonexistent infrastructure, wildly unpredictable weather, and few opportunities for scavenging, the Trans-Mississippi proved a challenge for commanders on both sides of the conflict. As the contributors to Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi demonstrate, only the most creative minds could operate successfully in such an unforgiving environment. While some of these generals have been the subjects of larger studies, others, including Generals Holmes, Parsons, and Churchill, receive their first serious scholarly attention in these pages.

According to the foreword by William L. Shea, until recently, all eyes remained firmly if myopically fixed on the inconclusive struggle in Virginia. Fortunately, recent research has revealed that the Civil War in the Trans-Mississippi was more complex, compelling, and significant than previously realized. To be sure, battles generally were smaller and casualties lower than elsewhere, but intensity is unrelated to scale. Courage, suffering, and devastation knew no boundaries. Soldiers and civilians made the same sacrifices and shared the same experiences on both sides of the Mississippi River.

In Civil War historiography, the Trans-Mississippi region has been the most neglected of the geographical regions of that conflict. This lack of attention resulted in part from the attitudes of the opposing governments during the war. The Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department has had the reputation of being a dumping ground for men who had failed to perform well east of the river.

So does the dumping ground reputation of the Trans-Mississippi Department have any validity? Of the twelve top-ranked generals ordered west of the Mississippi River only one – Benjamin Huger – seems to have received those orders because of his shortcomings on the battlefield. A majority of the brigadier generals making that trek had unsullied reputations, but that group included several men who clearly seem to have been bunglers or who displayed limited talent as a commander.

Several of the Trans-Mississippi Confederate generals had great ability. Others were colorful characters whose fearlessness in battle endeared their men to them and inspired bravery throughout the ranks. Others were not so reckless. Rather than a dumping ground, the Trans-Mississippi became a graveyard. Brigadier General Lucius M. Walker was the only Confederate general to die as a result of a wound from a duel with a fellow general (Major General John S. Marmaduke). Major General John A. Wharton became the only Confederate general to be murdered by a fellow Confederate officer during the war. Colonel George Wythe Baylor and Wharton had a ‘personal altercation’ in which Baylor shot the unarmed Wharton.

Thomas C. Hindman Jr. Another Confederate general killed in a personal altercation was Earl Van Dorn. A year before his assassination by a jealous husband, Van Dorn had left Thomas C. Hindman Jr. in charge of his geographical command while he took the troops east of the Mississippi. As with many Civil War generals, Hindman, the subject of Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi's first essay, was better known as a politician than for his service in the Mexican War. Bobby L. Roberts's "'An Ultra and Stupid Conservatism Ruined Us': General Thomas C. Hindman Jr. and the Defense of Arkansas" details that general's sixty-day administration of the Trans-Mississippi District of Department No. 2 and subsequent command of the District of Arkansas. He describes the numerous military and political challenges facing Hindman at the end of May 1862 and outlines how he employed unusual approaches to overcome them. According to Roberts, Hindman's experiences in Kentucky and Tennessee in 1861 and 1862 convinced him that the Confederacy must fight a total war and molded his outlook in Arkansas. Hindman's actions angered Arkansas politicians, who begged Davis to remove him from command. The president caved in to this pressure and fell back on his long-held practice of replacing civilian generals like Hindman with West Point-trained commanders, in this instance Theophilus H. Holmes.

Theophilus H. Holmes. Joseph G. Dawson III continues the story of Confederate military lead­ership west of the Mississippi in "Theophilus H. Holmes and Confederate Generalship." Dawson ably demonstrates that officer's ineffectiveness as Hindman's successor and rates Holmes as one of the poorest of the South's lieutenant generals. Graduating near the bottom of his class at the United States Military Academy, the North Carolinian did little in his pre-Civil War service to mark him as an officer of merit. Davis nominated his West Point classmate as a brigadier general in June 1861, but Holmes did nothing to distinguish himself in his early commands. In fact, he even admitted that his responsibilities overwhelmed him. Clearly Davis erred in assigning Holmes to command of the Trans-Mississippi Department, but no other officer who outranked Hindman was available. The general himself found everything in the department chaotic and found himself faced with numerous difficulties. At one point, Holmes offered to step down so a senior officer could replace him. Davis refused to do this until early 1863, when he sent Edmund Kirby Smith to take command.

Edmund Kirby Smith. Though a better departmental commander than Holmes, Edmund Kirby Smith had his own character flaws. Jeffery S. Prushankin's "'To Carry Off the Glory': Edmund Kirby Smith in 1864" describes how the general's personality adversely affected military operations in Louisiana and Arkansas during that year. Kirby Smith had hoped to conduct an offensive through Arkansas into Missouri in the spring. The Red River Campaign and Camden Expedition by Union forces in Louisiana and Arkansas, respectively, prevented such a campaign of conquest. Prushankin shows how Kirby Smith wavered between supporting Richard Taylor's army in Louisiana and Sterling Price's in Arkansas. As a result, the Confederates failed to strike a major blow against the Federals along the Red River and saw the Union army in Arkansas retreat virtually uninjured back to its base at Little Rock.

Mosby Monroe Parsons. Despite the vastness of the Trans-Mississippi Department, the number of troops largely determined how many subordinate generals a commander had at a given time. Of the five lower-ranking generals discussed in Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi, the most forgotten is Mosby M. Parsons. In "Mosby Monroe Parsons: Missouri's Forgotten Brigadier," Bill J. Gurley covers Parsons's Civil War career prior to his receiving command of a division and promotion to the rank of major general. Born in Virginia but raised in Missouri, Parsons commanded a company under Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan in the Mexican War and later became involved in politics in his adopted state. When the Civil War began, Parsons served in the Missouri State Guard, commanding one of its divisions as a brigadier general. He led his men in several battles and skirmishes prior to receiving a commission as a brigadier in the Confederate army. Parsons organized a brigade of Missouri infantry, which performed well at the battles of Prairie Grove and Helena, though the Confederates lost both battles.

John S. Marmaduke. In "A 'Gallant and Prudent Commander': Major General John S. Marmaduke," Helen P. Trimpi argues that Marmaduke deserves more recognition than he has received but has suffered because of a ‘drab’ rather than colorful style. Unlike most of his contemporaries in the Trans-Mississippi cavalry, Marmaduke was a native of the region, having been born in Missouri. Marmaduke led an infantry regiment at Shiloh and briefly commanded an infantry brigade in the operations around Corinth, Mississippi, in May and June 1862. After asking for and receiving transfer to the Trans-Mississippi, he quickly found himself in command of a cavalry division. In that capacity he fought gallantly but not always successfully in numerous battles and campaigns in Arkansas and Missouri. Marmaduke's Confederate career ended with his capture on October 25, 1864, in the Battle of Mine Creek, Kansas. While in a Union prison, the Confederate Congress confirmed his promotion to the rank of major general.

Thomas James Churchill. While Parsons and Marmaduke ranked among the best of Kirby Smith's subordinates, the same cannot be said for Mark K. Christ's subject. In "'Not Fortunate in War': Major General Thomas James Churchill," Christ describes the less than sterling record of an infantry division commander in the Trans-Mississippi Department. A lawyer and planter, Churchill saw service in the Mexican War, where he became a prisoner of war. Raising the 1st Arkansas Mounted Rifles when the Civil War began, Churchill and his men fought at Wilson's Creek and were present at Pea Ridge, though they saw little action there. Transferred east of the Mississippi River, Churchill received promotion to brigadier general and led a small infantry division under Major General Edmund Kirby Smith in the invasion of Kentucky. Churchill's one moment of glory came at the Battle of Richmond. There his men played an important role in the rout of the Union forces. Churchill received orders to return to Arkansas, where he commanded Confederate forces at Arkansas Post. Captured there, he returned to the Trans-Mississippi after his release from prison and led first a brigade and then a division of Arkansas infantrymen. At the battles of Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, and Jenkins' Ferry, Arkansas, Churchill performed poorly, yet he ultimately received promotion to the rank of ma­jor general late in the war.

Thomas Green. In "Three Days in April: Tom Green's Contributions at Carroll's Mill, Mansfield, and Pleasant Hill during the Red River Cam­paign," Curtis W. Milbourn shows how a Trans-Mississippi cavalry general exhibited outstanding skills on three battlefields. The Virginia-born Green fought in the Texas Revolution and the Mexican War and gained important experience as a commander. He first saw duty as a Confederate while leading a Texas cavalry regiment in the ill-fated New Mexico expedition of Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley. In 1863, Green led a brigade of Texas cavalrymen in Major General Richard Taylor's army in Louisiana. His conduct as a division commander during the three engagements described in this essay marked Green as one of Taylor's most reliable subordinates and a man deserving of more recognition as a general than he has received.

Joseph Orville Shelby. Another Confederate cavalryman of the Trans-Mississippi was one whose name many Civil Warriors may recognize – Joseph O. Shelby. That name recognition may be due not so much to his activities in Missouri and Arkansas as for taking his brigade on a long trek to Mexico rather than surrender at war's end. In "Exile to Submission, Death to Dishonor: General Joseph Orville Shelby" Stuart W. Sanders summarizes the general's actions in numerous battles, engagements, and raids. After early service as a cavalry company commander, Shelby became a colonel in June 1862 and received command of a small cavalry brigade. He and his troopers performed well in numerous actions against Union forces, and Shelby had several horses shot from under him and received a severe wound at the Battle of Helena. Promoted to brigadier in late 1863, Shelby performed well during the Camden Expedition and Price's invasion of Missouri of the next year. His brigade served as Price's rear guard as it retreated back to Arkansas and on several occasions saved the army from disaster.

One of the real strengths of the essays is that some generals that have either been dismissed or nearly ignored finally get serious treatment, some for the very first time. Among these I would include Mosby Monroe Parsons, Thomas James Churchill, and Joseph Orville Shelly. – Gary D. Joiner, editor, The Western Theater in the Civil War series

This and subsequent volumes on the Trans-Mississippi provide an expanded perspective on Confederate military leadership, a perspective never before available or even possible, given the previously distorted state of Civil War historiography.

Demonstrating the independence of the Trans-Mississippi and the nuances of the military struggle there, while placing both the generals and the theater in the wider scope of the war, the eight essays in Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi offer valuable new insight into Confederate military leadership. This study of generals in gray helps readers reach a better understanding of Civil War generalship and of how battles and campaigns ended as they did. The additional insight these eight essays provide into the Confederate high command should help readers come closer to determining how and why the South lost the Civil War.

History / Americas / Native American

Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present edited by David J. Minderhout (Stories of the Susquehanna Valley Series, Vol. 1: Bucknell University Press)

Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present, the first volume in the new Stories of the Susquehanna Valley series, describes the Native American presence in the Susquehanna River Valley, a key crossroads of the old Eastern Woodlands between the Great Lakes and the Chesapeake Bay in northern Appalachia. Editor David J. Minderhout is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Bloomsburg University, Pennsylvania.

Combining archaeology, history, cultural anthropology, and the study of contemporary Native American issues, contributors describe what is known about the Native Americans from their earliest known presence in the valley to the contact era with Europeans. They also explore the subsequent consequences of that contact for Native peoples, including the removal, forced or voluntary, of many from the valley, in what became a chilling prototype for attempted genocide across the continent. Euro-American history asserted that there were no native people left in Pennsylvania (the center of the Susquehanna watershed) after the American Revolution. But with revived Native American cultural consciousness in the late twentieth century, Pennsylvanians of native ancestry began to take pride in and reclaim their heritage. Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present also tells their stories, including efforts to revive Native cultures in the watershed, and Native perspectives on its ecological restoration.
While focused on the Susquehanna River Valley, this collection also discusses topics of national significance for Native Americans and those interested in their cultures. Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present differs from earlier published works about the Native Americans of Pennsylvania and contiguous areas in that it presumes that people of native background continue to live and celebrate their heritage in the region. The book describes the lives of the native people of the Susquehanna River Valley from prehistoric times through European contact, but also documents their participation in the modern world. This is a book about projectile points and petroglyphs, but it is also about family histories, the ongoing efforts to reintroduce native languages into Pennsylvania and the spiritual values many contemporary Native Americans embrace. Its authors thus appropriately come from diverse disciplines and backgrounds, including anthropologists, historians, psychologists, ethnomusicologists, and community leaders, many of whom have native heritage with roots in the Susquehanna country.

The historiographical neglect of Native American culture in this key pre-settlement and peri-settlement corridor for native peoples, linking the Chesapeake Bay to ‘Iroquoia’ in the north as well as to the Great Lakes, echoed the brutal attempted erasure of Indian culture from the region. Native peoples in the Susquehanna Country, especially in its central areas in Pennsylvania, often feared to identify themselves publicly as Indian in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. One sign of change in the twenty-first century, following the studies highlighted in Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present, was the designation of the Susquehanna River by the National Park Service as a national historic connector trail to the Chesapeake Bay historic trail system.

Minderhout and his colleague, Andrea T. Frantz, say in Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present that when they began working with Native Americans in Pennsylvania (the state in which the largest portion of the Susquehanna watershed lies) in 2004, they were routinely told that there were no Native Americans in Pennsylvania, despite the fact that approximately 53,000 Pennsylvanians identified themselves as wholly or partially Native American in the 2000 U.S. Census. Nevertheless as they traveled around the state, interviewing people who claimed native descent and attending powwows and tribal council meetings, they met hundreds of people who emphatically believed they held native ancestry and were proud to embrace that heritage.

Archaeologists maintain that Native Americans have lived in the Susquehanna River Valley for at least 11,000 years. By 11,000 years ago, the climate was already warming and the glaciers were receding, though this process worked out in fits and starts, with warmer and cooler periods over hundreds of years. By 10,000 years ago, the physical environment of the Susquehanna Valley began to look much like it does today. As the climate changed, so did the lifestyles of Native Americans. In what archaeologists call the Archaic and Woodland Periods, Native Americans developed new technologies and patterns of living, while the river valley continued to provide abundant resources – fish, especially in the form of seasonally migrating species such as shad, freshwater shellfish, and aquatic and waterside varieties of plants and the animals that would be drawn to the river for water. When horticulture/agriculture was introduced into the valley around 1,400 years ago, the alluvial soils along the river banks and surrounding plateau provided a highly fertile base for corn and other domesticated crops.

Starting in the seventeenth century, Europeans began to make contact with the native people of the Susquehanna region. Captain John Smith famously made contact with Susquehannock warriors and traders at the mouth of the river in his voyage up the Chesapeake Bay in 1608; the river would come to be named for these people as he knew them. Initial contacts between Europeans and Native Americans were generally peaceful and trade-based, but by the end of the seventeenth century these contacts were proving disastrous for the native people. Smallpox and other European-introduced diseases were destroying native communities. Caught between rival European colonial powers, natives were drawn into conflicts as allies or enemies. Increasing numbers of European settlers, especially after 1682 when William Penn arrived in Pennsylvania and took possession of "Penn's Woods," led to the removal and relocation of native people from their land. By the time of the French and Indian War (1755–1763) and the subsequent rebellion of Pontiac (1763), native peoples were routinely seen by colonial governments as a problem to be exterminated.

Chapters for Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present were chosen to address the contrast between the significance of the Susquehanna Valley to native cultures and the lacuna in information and understanding of this continuing significance in Euroamerican historiography. The first three chapters reflect the sense of history and cultural pride which those of native descent still espouse in the region. The first chapter gives an overview of the prehistory of the native presence in the Susquehanna River Valley from the Paleoindian Era to the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century periods of European contact and native destruction. Paul Nevin's seminal chapter on petroglyphs on the lower Susquehanna River is especially important – as well as reflective of how little we still know, or understand, about Native Americans from Pennsylvania's past. All of the subsequent chapters emphasize some aspect of contemporary native life in the state and region. They include Donald Repsher's account of the mingling of native and European backgrounds in the colonial era and their implications for native identity in the state today; Gerald Dietz's memories of his life growing up as a Seneca in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Susan Taffe Reed's descriptions of efforts to preserve and pass on the Munsee dialect of Lenape to a new generation; and Ken Hayden's description of Lenape values and spirituality. Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present ends with a description of the Native Lands County Park on the Susquehanna River in Lancaster County, since the park represents both a need to respect the native history of the Susquehanna River Valley and the native appreciation of the environment.

The claim that native populations were wiped clean from the state in the eighteenth century does not match the historical record. Rather, records show that intermarriage between European and native people began early in the seventeenth century. Some European people – mostly women – were captured by native people and integrated into native society as wives and mothers (see the story of Mary Jemison in the chapter on ethnography). Some Europeans admired the native way of life and voluntarily entered into it. When, after Pontiac's failed rebellion in 1763, the federal government demanded the return of all Europeans living among surviving native people, several hundred people were forced to leave their native communities – though most subsequently fled colonial life to return to their native families. Native Americans themselves were becoming Christians, learning European languages, living in log cabins and farming with European-introduced technologies, crops and livestock in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As pointed out by Donald Repsher in chapter five, native peoples made many accommodations to continue to live in their traditional homelands.

In his chapter in Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present, Gerald Dietz argues that after the French and Indian War, people of native heritage along the Susquehanna River began to, as he puts it, ‘hunker down.’ Many Native Americans had joined French attacks on English colonial settlements in central Pennsylvania, and natives were increasingly being portrayed as ‘murderous savages.’ The passing of a Scalp Act and the paying of substantial bounties for Indian scalps by the Pennsylvania legislature in 1756 led many settled natives to fear for their lives, since the act did not require that scalps be taken only from hostile people; native men, women and children were all targeted by this act. Massacres, such as the Paxton Boys attack on the Susquehannocks in 1763 and the American army's wholesale extermination of a peaceful Christian Indian community at Gnadenhutten, Ohio in 1782 convinced many Pennsylvanians of native descent to draw into themselves and deny their heritage. In the nineteenth century, widespread prejudice and discrimination against natives were common, as illustrated in Susan Taffe Reed's recounting of newspaper stories from the late nineteenth century. She shows how popular views of a mixed population called the Vanderpools in the Towanda, Pennsylvania area, on the North Branch of the Susquehanna River, reflected stereotypes of native peoples as lazy, stupid and unreliable.

In the 1970s, in the wake of the civil rights movement and with a growing general appreciation of cultural and ethnic diversity across the United States, native consciousness and Red Power movements began to change the public perception of Native Americans. Rather than the Hollywood movie portrayal of natives as bloodthirsty savages, many Americans began to see Native Americans as historically wronged, environmentally conscious and spiritually complex. In Pennsylvania, the process seems to have been slower than in much of the rest of the United States. While attempts had been made to form native organizations in the state as early as the 1950s, it was not until the early 1980s that these organizations took on formal structure and incorporation. Today, many families are still discovering their native backgrounds, backed in some cases by modern technologies such as DNA testing.

With their increased pride in their native heritage, many in the region have tried in recent years to revive native institutions, such as Lenape music and dance regalia. Susan Taffe Reed's chapter on Munsee dialect language revival is an excellent example of an effort to reestablish a culturally important institution in the Susquehanna River Valley. Reed, in particular, documents her efforts on the North Branch of the Susquehanna with the Muncie dialect and the increasingly enthusiastic response she has received from people of native descent in that area. People claiming native descent in Pennsylvania continue to have their claims challenged. The issue of Native American identity and who can be considered a ‘real Indian,’ is the biggest question in Native American politics and studies today, as can be seen in many of the texts listed in the bibliography.

As the first book in Bucknell University's Stories of the Susquehanna Series, Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present is designed to inform its readers about the long history and continued existence of Native Americans on the Susquehanna River, and perhaps in larger terms east of the Mississippi River generally.

Perhaps the chapters in Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present will help to show that Native Americans still exist.

History / Europe / Military / World War II

Between Giants: The Battle for the Baltics in World War II by Prit Buttar (Osprey Publishing)

With the exception of Poland, no region or territory suffered more greatly during World War II than the Baltic States. Caught between the giants of the Soviet Union and the Third Reich, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia became pawns in the desperate battle for control of Eastern Europe throughout the course of World War II. Between Giants is a story of conquest and exploitation, of death and deportation and the fight for survival both by countries and individuals. The three states were repeatedly occupied – by the Soviet Union in 1939, by Germany in 1941, and again by the Soviet Union in 1944-45. In each case, local government organizations and individuals were forced to choose between supporting the occupying forces or forming partisan units. Many would be caught up in the bitter fighting in the region and, in particular, in the huge battles for the Courland bridgehead during Operation Bagration when hundreds of thousands of soldiers would fight and die in the last year of the war. Over 300,000 Soviet troops would be lost during the repeated assaults on the 'Courland Cauldron' before 146,000 German and Latvia troops were finally forced to surrender. No mercy was shown and all Latvians, Lithuanians, and Estonians who fought for Germany were executed.

Author Prit Buttar studied medicine at Oxford and London before joining the British Army as a doctor. After leaving the army, he has worked as a GP, first near Bristol and now in Abingdon near Oxford.

According to Between Giants, devastated during the German invasion, the states of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia became the site of some of the most vicious fighting during the Soviet counter-attack and push towards Berlin. By the end of the war, death and deportation had cost the Baltic States over 20 per cent of their total population and Soviet occupation was to see the iron curtain descend on the region for four decades. Using numerous first hand accounts and detailed archival research, Prit Buttar in Between Giants weaves an account of the bitter fighting on the Eastern Front and the three small states whose fates were determined by the fortunes of war.

According to Buttar, a quote often attributed – possibly incorrectly – to Josef Stalin is that `the death of one person is a tragedy; the death of one million is a statistic'. Such a statement could certainly be said to apply to the Baltic States. The destruction and suffering endured many nations during the Second World War are beyond question, but often the scale of the numbers involved can reduce their impact. The German atrocities in the Soviet Union, followed by Soviet atrocities in Germany, are well known and widely documented, but in terms of the proportion of the population lost, the countries caught between these powerful protagonists – Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia – suffered far more than any other. While the deaths in Poland are relatively well known, the suffering in the Baltic States is rarely mentioned, even though their population loss was higher than that of any country other than Poland.

These terrible casualties were brought about by the unique circumstances of these three nations, which suffered three occupations in quick succession – the first Soviet occupation in 1939, the German occupation in 1941 and the second Soviet occupation in 1944-45, which would last nearly half a century. But in contrast to the situation in Poland, many of the deaths of Baltic citizens, particularly in Lithuania and Latvia, were at the hands of their fellow Balts, as the occupying powers exploited divisions within these countries. And, unlike Poland, the three nations were forced by their unique situation to offer support, albeit limited and reluctant, to Germany, leaving them unable to claim the backing of the victorious Allies in the post-war settlement.

A magisterial account, Between Giants does not attempt to judge the decisions made by the leaders and people of the Baltic States, who struggled to reconcile the situation in which they found themselves with their own aspirations. It elucidates the terrible destruction and bloodshed that had such a devastating effect on this corner of Europe, the consequences of which are still felt today.

Home & Garden / Crafts & Hobbies / Gardening & Horticulture

Heavenly Hydrangeas: A Practical Guide for the Home Gardener by Joan Harrison (Schiffer Publishing)

Hydrangeas are booming in popularity as home gardeners appreciate their long season of bloom, ease of maintenance, and dazzling variety of flower colors and forms. Unique in their ability to change flower color depending on soil composition, hydrangeas are the chameleons of the plant world.

Heavenly Hydrangeas is a comprehensive hydrangea handbook for the home gardener with expert advice on selection, planting, pruning, propagation, and providing basic care. More than 250 color photos clarify such topics as flower color and seasonal changes. With single topic chapters and answers to frequently asked questions, Heavenly Hydrangeas is an accessible guide for both beginning and experienced gardeners.

Author Joan Harrison has studied hydrangeas for more than twenty years, traveling extensively to view collections.

According to Heavenly Hydrangeas, plant breeders are introducing new varieties every year so that what was a fairly simple selection process has now become more complicated. While having many more beautiful hydrangea varieties to choose from is quite a positive development, selecting from among them can sometimes feel confusing. People approach the task differently depending on their priorities, but the common goal for all is to put the right plant in the right place.

What is ‘the right plant’? It is the plant that satisfies some need of the gardener making the choice. It is, moreover, a plant that performs well in the garden's climate. It blooms at the desired time of year and the color of the blooms coordinates well with those of existing plants in the same area. ‘The right place’ will allow the plant to grow comfortably to its mature size without impinging on other plants or causing navigation problems in the garden due to excessive spread. It will not block desired views from windows and it will be situated to catch just the right amount of sunlight. If readers take the time to make careful selections, those plants will provide them with years of enjoyment and no regrets.

Because the choice of plant is so important to the gardener's ultimate satisfaction, several chapters are dedicated to help with the selection process. If readers are aware of only blue, pink, and white hydrangeas with their distinctive round flower heads, they may be surprised to learn about the other species available to the home gardener. Chapter Two is devoted to hydrangea species including the five species most commonly available at garden centers.

Naturally readers want to make sure the plant suits their climate. Some hydrangeas are hardier than others and this could be an important factor depending on where they live. Chapter Three deals with climate issues including USDA Hardiness Zones and the concept of microclimates.

Hydrangeas lined up at a garden center in their plastic pots might be temporarily identical in size which makes it easy to forget their mature size. A good plant label reveals the usual height and spread of the plants, but not all plants are well labeled. Before readers go to the garden center it makes sense to have a general idea of how big the hydrangeas they have in mind are likely to get. Chapter Four helps them anticipate growth to allow for the space needed by the different species and the size range within a species.

Just as readers need to consider their climate when making selections, they need to think about the amount of sunlight required by plants in order to thrive. Chapter Five outlines the sun and shade requirements of different hydrangea species including both the amount of sunlight needed and the time of day when sunlight is most desired.

Flower color is often the primary consideration when selecting hydrangea varieties. Hydrangea flower colors can be particularly challenging when they have seen the color they want, but don't know the name of the variety. Hydrangeas have the chameleon-like tendency to change color based on soil composition which confuses the issue further. Chapter Six clears up color mysteries and makes recommendations for the best blues, pinks, purples, and whites.

Home gardeners frequently seek out plants with specific characteristics. A flower arranger desires plants that yield good cut flowers. Someone who lives near the ocean focuses on plants that can tolerate seaside conditions. A rooftop gardener wants plants that do well in containers. Chapter Seven makes recommendations about hydrangeas with specific traits, including good cut flowers, good dried flowers, hydrangeas good for containers, hydrangeas that tend to re-bloom after the first flush of blooming, hydrangeas with large flower heads, and hydrangeas good for seaside locations.

With single-topic chapters and answers to frequently asked questions, Heavenly Hydrangeas is a handy and easily accessible guide for both beginning and experienced gardeners. With more than 250 vivid color photos, the book offers clear and expert advice on planting, pruning, and providing basic care. Color mysteries are cleared up along with recommendations for achieving the best blues, pinks, purples, and whites in the home garden. This book also reveals the best species for landscaping uses and the best varieties for both fresh and dried flower arrangements. Whatever readers’ starting points, the chapters in Heavenly Hydrangeas will guide them toward the right plant or plants to satisfy their requirements.

Home & Garden / Crafts & Hobbies / Models / Architecture / Engineering

Brick City: Global Icons to Make from LEGO by Warren Elsmore (Barron’s Educational Series)

Brick City is a celebration of the world's favorite buildings and urban icons, recreated using LEGO bricks. From Sydney's Harbor Bridge to San Francisco's Transamerica Pyramid, from London's St. Pancras Station to Barcelona's Sagrada Familia, the Eiffel Tower to the Burj Al Arab – more than 100 global landmarks are showcased in LEGO form. For each city, there are familiar objects and landmarks that readers can make at home, such as the London red phone box, New York's yellow cab, and Rome's Trevi Fountain. Readers will also find stunning photography of great feats of LEGO engineering.

The book features:

  • Mega LEGO structures from LEGO artists around the world.
  • Step-by-step instructions for mini-icons to make at home.

Enclosed with the book are two dramatic posters featuring LEGO model photos of architectural world landmarks. The posters, which are suitable for framing, unfold to 17 1/2" x 24 3/4".

Brick City is a model builder's festival. What lends special distinction to the models is the way they are constructed. Each is made entirely of LEGO bricks. Known for decades as a favorite children's toy, LEGO bricks have entered the adult model builder's repertoire in recent years. Author and model maker Warren Elsmore presents instructions for neophyte LEGO modelers plus plans for constructing specific buildings and landmarks, along with vivid photos of completed LEGO models. Elsmore is best known for his 13 1/2-foot-long LEGO model of London's famous St. Pancras railroad station.

The models in Brick City represent landmarks from all over the world, and include:

  • St. Basil's Cathedral
  • New York's New World Trade Center
  • The Arc de Triomphe
  • Rome's Colosseum
  • A London taxicab
  • Hong Kong ferries
  • Buckingham Palace
  • The Eiffel Tower
  • The Taj Mahal ... among others.

Elsmore says that Brick City is the result of his lifelong love affair with LEGO. It is both a celebration of amazing global architecture and his love of the possibilities of LEGO bricks. Each chapter highlights iconic images from different cities, whether it's the San Francisco cable car, cherry blossom in Tokyo, or the yellow New York taxi. The book also includes full instructions for many of these models, so no matter what age readers are on the outside, they can let the LEGO-loving kid within take over, get out those LEGO bricks, and start building.

The humble LEGO brick reaches new heights in Brick City. Featuring amazing photos of LEGO models, and scale drawings of structural details, Brick City presents a modeler's panorama of contemporary urban landscapes. Both older children and adults will marvel at more than 100 stunning color photographs of global icons.

Law / Criminal Law / Public Policy

Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach by Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform, Committee on Law and Justice, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and National Research Council (The National Academies Press)

Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks.
Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies.

It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach reviews recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and assesses the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.

Reforming Juvenile Justice details what has been learned about adolescent development and how that knowledge can be applied to the policies of the police, the courts, and other institutions that are responsible for both the safety of communities and holding people accountable for their behavior. It examines programs that have been effective in reducing re-offending and lays out the basis for a 21st-century juvenile justice system.

The committee's charge was to take stock of the juvenile justice reforms undertaken over the past 15 years in light of current knowledge about adolescent development. The study was requested by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), an agency of the U.S. Department of Justice. In an austere fiscal environment with so many pressing priorities, OJJDP naturally wants to ensure that it supports the research and programs that best harness the available scientific evidence.

According to Robert L. Johnson, Chair and Richard J. Bonnie, Vice Chair, Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform in the preface of Reforming Juvenile Justice, the central premise of this report is that the goals, design, and operation of the juvenile justice system should be informed by the growing body of knowledge about adolescent development. If designed and implemented in a developmentally informed way, procedures for holding adolescents accountable for their offending, and the services provided to them, can promote positive legal socialization, reinforce a prosocial identity, and reduce reoffending. However, if the goals, design, and operation of the juvenile justice system are not informed by this growing body of knowledge, the outcome is likely to be negative interactions between youth and justice system officials, increased disrespect for the law and legal authority, and the reinforcement of a deviant identity and social disaffection.

Scientists commonly complain that policy makers are not paying attention to the scientific evidence. The experience of the authors of Reforming Juvenile Justice in studying juvenile justice has been quite the reverse. They detected an impressive consensus among stakeholder groups and public officials regarding the goals of the juvenile justice system, a genuine hunger for evidence about what works, and a willingness to embrace evidence-based policies and programs. This report aims to consolidate the progress that has been made in both science and policy making and to establish a strong platform for a 21st century juvenile justice system.

Advancing knowledge has helped to foster a climate of optimism. However, this energizing spirit of change has not taken root in all parts of the country, and it could dissipate if institutional structures are not put in place to sustain it and to assure a continuing partnership among practitioners, researchers, and policy makers. The locus of reform lies at the state, local, and tribal levels, and most of this report focuses on the opportunities and challenges facing the courts, law enforcement agencies, schools, social service agencies, and mental health agencies in communities throughout the nation. However, OJJDP support and leadership are critically important if the reform process is to succeed, and the report urges Congress to embrace the cause of juvenile justice reform by clarifying and reaffirming the mission of OJJDP.

Reforming Juvenile Justice shows that a harsh system of punishing troubled youth can make things worse, while a scientifically based juvenile justice system can make an enduring difference in the lives of many youth who most need the structure and services it can provide. Reforming Juvenile Justice will be valuable not only to policy makers and those involved in the juvenile justice system, but also to parents, school officials, and others who face the often perplexing behavior of adolescents.

Law / Public Health / Administration & Policy

Public Health Law Research: Theory and Methods edited by Alexander C. Wagenaar and Scott C. Burris (Jossey-Bass)

Law matters to public health. It is a tool for intervention to promote healthier places and people. It sets the powers, duties, and limitations of health agencies. Sometimes laws and legal practices with no deliberate relation to health have positive or negative effects on health. Yet if we go back to the roots of modern public health practice – to epidemiology – and look at public health as it is practiced today, we can see why it is not enough to assert the important roles of law in public health. Science is the lifeblood of public health, the source of much of its effectiveness and legitimacy. Effective public health work begins with understanding the nature, effects, and distribution of the threats to our health and the facilitators of our well-being, and extends to carefully evaluating the interventions designed to support our thriving. So it must also be with law.

Public Health Law Research: Theory and Methods explores the mechanisms, theories and models central to public health law research – a growing field dedicated to measuring and studying law as a central means for advancing public health.

Editors Alexander C. Wagenaar and Scott Burris outline integrated theory drawn from numerous disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences; specific mechanisms of legal effect and guidelines for collecting and coding empirical datasets of statutory and case law; optimal research designs for randomized trials and natural experiments for public health law evaluation; and methods for qualitative and cost-benefit studies of law. They also discuss the challenge of translating the results of scientific evaluations into public health laws and highlight the impact of this growing field.

Wagenaar is professor of health outcomes and policy at the University of Florida College of Medicine, and associate director of the Public Health Law Research program, and Burris is professor of law at Temple University, where he directs the Center for Health Law, Policy and Practice and the Public Health Law Research program. The book has 26 contributors.

According to Burris in the preface, if law matters to public health, we have to be able to show how, under what circumstances, to what degree. We have to produce evidence. Public health law research (PHLR) is the field devoted to creating and disseminating that evidence.

Public Health Law Research describes scientific theory and methods for investigating the development, implementation, and effects of public health law. There is no special science of public health law research. Epidemiology, economics, physiology, and sociology do not change when law is the topic of investigation. There are unique challenges to studying law, and a set of theory, measurement, and research design tools that specifically help to meet those challenges. Public Health Law Research is not a general primer on scientific research methods. Its focus is on the problems that tend to arise in public health law research – and their solutions.

Public Health Law Research is presented in four parts, each beginning with an introduction delineating the topics to be covered. Part One is an introduction to the basic concepts of the field of PHLR. Part Two presents a rich collection of theories that researchers have used to study how law influences behavior – the mechanisms or processes through which a rule manages to have measurable effects on what people do and how they fare. Part Three is devoted to special questions of measurement that arise when law is the independent variable. Finally, with this grounding in how law works and how it can be measured, Part Four considers the various study designs for public health law research.

Chapters in Public Health Law Research and their authors include:

PART ONE: Framing Public Health Law Research

  1. A Framework for Public Health Law Research – Scott Burris, Alexander C. Wagenaar, Jeffrey W. Swanson, Jennifer K. Ibrahim, Jennifer Wood, and Michelle M. Mello
  2. Law in Public Health Systems and Services Research – Scott Burris, Glen P. Mays, F. Douglas Scutchfield, and Jennifer K. Ibrahim

PART TWO: Understanding How Law Influences Environments and Behavior

  1. Perspectives from Public Health – Kelli A. Komro, Ryan J. O'Mara, and Alexander C. Wagenaar
  2. Law and Society Approaches – Robin Stryker
  3. Criminological Theories – Wesley G. Jennings and Tom Mieczkowski
  4. Procedural Justice Theory – Tom R. Tyler and Avital Mentovich
  5. Economic Theory – Frank J. Chaloupka
  6. The Theory of Triadic Influence – Brian R. Flay and Marc B. Schure
  7. Integrating Diverse Theories for Public Health Law Evaluation – Scott Burris and Alexander C. Wagenaar

PART THREE: Identifying and Measuring Legal Variables

  1. Picturing Public Health Law Research: The Value of Causal Diagrams – Jeffrey W. Swanson and Jennifer K. Ibrahim
  2. Measuring Statutory Law and Regulations for Empirical Research – Evan D. Anderson, Charles Tremper, Sue Thomas, and Alexander C. Wagenaar
  3. Coding Case Law for Public Health Law Evaluation – Mark Hall

PART FOUR: Designing Public Health Law Evaluations

  1. Evaluating Public Health Law Using Randomized Experiments – Alan S. Gerber, Donald P. Green, and Allison J. Carnegie
  2. Natural Experiments: Research Design Elements for Optimal Causal Inference Without Randomization – Alexander C. Wagenaar and Kelli A. Komro
  3. Qualitative Research Strategies for Public Health Law Evaluation – Jennifer Wood
  4. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Public Health Laws – Ted R. Miller and Delia Hendrie
  5. The Future of Public Health Law Research – Scott Burris and Alexander C. Wagenaar

How exactly the law can best be used as a tool for protecting and enhancing the public’s health has long been the subject of solely opinion and anecdote. Enter Public Health Law Research, a discipline designed to bring the bright light of science to the relationships between law and health. This book is a giant step forward in illuminating that subject. – Stephen Teret, JD, MPH, Professor, Director, Center for Law and the Public's Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Wagenaar and Burris bring a dose of much needed rigor to the empirical study of which public health law interventions really matter, and which don’t. – Bernard S. Black, JD, Chabraja Professor, Northwestern University Law School and Kellogg School of Management

The intersection of law, policy, advocacy, and health is complex. Applied at the right time, in the right places, with the right partners, laws and policies have the potential to create lasting positive changes in the lives of people. I am confident that Public Health Law Research will enhance the quality of public health law research. It will strengthen the role of research in policy deliberations. And that will heighten the ability of policy makers, advocates, and leaders to craft and implement effective laws and policies to improve health for years to come. – Michelle A. Larkin, JD, MS, RN, Assistant Vice President, Health Group, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, from the foreword

Public Health Law Research represents a major milestone in the development of public health law research. It is intended for many kinds of readers: experienced social science researchers who are interested in adding public health law research to their repertoire; experienced health scientists who wish to expand their research from interventions at the individual or small-group levels to community or society-wide ‘treatments’ operating through law; legal scholars interested in how scientists approach the study of law; policy analysts seeking improved ability to assess the methods behind empirical evaluations of laws and policies; students and novice scientists who can hone their general skills through the study of public health law; and non-scientists who are seeking a general orientation to PHLR.

For the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which funded this research to make the case for laws that improve health, Public Health Law Research represents a unique and lasting contribution to the field of public health law. The studies which make up the Public Health Law Research program raise new questions and provide new insights. Collectively, they point to a need for a critical review of the basic concepts, theories, mechanisms, and measurement techniques of public health law research. That this need has been recognized and acted on is a tribute to the leadership of the Public Health Law Research program and the authors who have contributed to this book.

Literature & Fiction / Mysteries

Shadows in the Cotswolds by Rebecca Tope (Cotswold Mysteries Series: Allison & Busby)

When Thea Osborne in Shadows in the Cotswolds agrees at the last minute to housesit for Oliver Meadows as a favor to her mother, she expects a few days of peace with her spaniel, Hepzie. Uncomfortable with the news of her mother’s sudden involvement with an old flame, unsure of how to deal with her feelings for Drew Slocombe, Thea hopes that some time alone in the historic town of Winchcombe will help to clear her head. But, as usual, Thea quickly finds herself at the center of a dark mystery when she discovers a dead body in the gardens of the house.
In Shadows in the Cotswolds, the latest installment to the popular Cotswold Mysteries series by Rebecca Tope, Thea must work quickly to unravel the secrets which are being kept by Oliver and his brother, Fraser, and discover exactly what lies beneath the surface of their turbulent relationship. And amidst the chaos caused by the investigation, will Thea find time to decide how she should deal with her own problems too?

A compulsive series of rural adventures ... Well-paced mystery with plenty of quirks and plot twist – Good Book Guide

One of the most intelligent and thought provoking of today's crime writers – Mystery Women

The classic English village mystery is alive and well and living in Gloucestershire – Sherlock Magazine

Roich in psychological insight … Tope is particularly skilled in creating interesting and unique characters, and Thea is one of her best – Deadly Pleasures

Exciting, humorous and topical, this one of her best novels yet. – Crime Time

Tope is the author of eighteen previous crime novels. She lives on a smallholding in Herefordshire, with a full complement of livestock, but manages to travel the world and enjoy civilization from time to time as well. Most of her varied experiences and activities find their way into her books, sooner or later; for example, bee keeping, milk recording, spinning, arguing, undertaking and gardening. Her own cocker spaniel, Beulah, is the model for Hepzibah, but is unfortunately ageing much more rapidly. She is also currently the membership secretary of the Crime Writers’ Association.

Tope’s previous novels include: The Cotswold Mysteries: A Cotswold Killing, A Cotswold Ordeal, Death in the Cotswolds, A Cotswold Mystery, Blood in the Cotswolds, Slaughter in the Cotswolds, Fear in the Cotswolds, A Grave in the Cotswolds, Deception in the Cotswolds, and Malice in the Cotswolds. The West Country Mysteries: A Dirty Death, Dark Undertakings, Death of a Friend, Grave Concerns, A Death to Record, The Sting of Death, and A Market for Murder. The Lake District Mysteries: The Windermere Witness.

Professional & Technical / Medicine / Clinical / Internal / Gastroenterology

Extraesophageal Manifestations of GERD edited by Anthony J. DiMarino Jr. MD and Sidney Cohen MD (Slack Incorporated)

In the past 30 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has become an important area of clinical medicine. GERD has gradually become associated with other common but unexplained disorders. These conditions have been designated as the extraesophageal manifestations of GERD.
Anthony J. DiMarino, Jr. and Sidney Cohen and their contributors have written Extraesophageal Manifestations of GERD to identify associations with conditions like hoarseness, laryngeal cancer, sleep disorders, and dental caries, and to explore possible causation and mechanisms of disease or possible noncausal relationships. DiMarino is William Rorer Professor of Medicine, Chief, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Cohen, is Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, both at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia. The book has 17 contributors.
The extraesophageal disorders have become widely accepted in clinical practice. The evidence supporting the pathogenesis of these conditions falls into three major categories: guilt by association, observed mechanistic studies, and therapeutic response to treatment.
In Extraesophageal Manifestations of GERD readers find recognition and balance in treating patients with common symptom-based disorders. Final resolution of some of the controversies inherent in these associations may require advanced diagnostic tools and advanced pharmacological therapies.

Chapters of the book and their authors include:

  1. Extraesophageal Reflux: Definition and Pathophysiology – Vikneswaran Namasivayam, MBBS, MRCP and David A. Katzka, MD
  2. The Evaluation of Typical GERD – John O. Clarke, MD and Donald O. Castell, MD

3.      Pulmonary Manifestations of GERD: Controversies and Consensus – Lindsey B. Roenigk, MD and Susan M. Harding, MD

4.      Ear, Nose, and Throat Manifestations of GERD

·        An Otolaryngologist's Perspective – Joseph R. Spiegel, MD

·        A Gastroenterologist's Perspective – Lisa S. Cassani, MD and Michael F. Vaezi, MD, PhD, MSc

·        Editorial: Point Counterpoint – Anthony J. DiMarino Jr, MD and Sidney Cohen, MD

  1. Sleep Disturbance and Esophageal Reflux – Christine Herdman, MD; Dina Halegoua-DeMarzio, MD; Sidney Cohen, MD; and Anthony J. DiMarino Jr, MD
  2. GERD and Oral Manifestations – Mabi Singh, DMD, MS; Britta Magnuson, DMD; and Athena Papas, DMD, PhD
  3. Extraesophageal Manifestations in the Pediatric Population – Joan S. Di Palma, MD; Sheeja K. Abraham, MD; and Rebecca O. Ramirez, MD, FAAP

According to DiMarino and Cohen in the introduction to Extraesophageal Manifestations of GERD, in the past 30 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has become an important area of clinical medicine. The interest began with the introduction of histamine receptor antagonists and later with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The suppression of acid secretion focused clinical attention on acid secretion as the major culprit of GERD. The disorder, for the purpose of clinical trials, was defined as a clinical condition manifested by the symptom of heartburn and the sequelae of peptic esophagitis, stricture, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Clinical trials focused on symptom relief and the healing of peptic esophagitis.

These trials were highly successful and led to widespread use of these agents, especially PPIs. As new drugs were introduced, the marketing became extraordinary. Marked improvement in symptoms and the safety of PPIs further contributed to their success. GERD became widely recognized and treated by physicians and then patients themselves with available nonprescription drugs. Despite all PPI studies being focused on symptom relief and the healing of esophagitis, GERD has gradually become associated with other common but unexplained disorders. These conditions have been designated as the extraesophageal manifestations of GERD.

The extraesophageal disorders have become widely accepted in clinical practice. The evidence supporting the pathogenesis of these conditions is discussed in Extraesophageal Manifestations of GERD in 3 major categories: guilt by association, observed mechanistic studies, and therapeutic response to treatment. The authors cite the evidence to varying degrees and success. In the final analysis, response to PPI therapy has become the defining criteria. Unfortunately, this clinical approach becomes quite costly, especially in chronic conditions where treatment, not cure, is the major goal.

DiMarino and Cohen chose the topic and the authors to give readers recognition and balance in treating patients with common symptom-based disorders. With chapters written by experts in the fields of medicine, pediatrics, otolaryngology, and dentistry, Extraesophageal Manifestations of GERD will be a must have for gastroenterologists, internal medicine residents, surgeons, otolaryngologists, and pediatricians.

Religion & Spirituality / Christianity / Lifestyle / Devotional

Couples of the Bible: A One-Year Devotional Study to Draw You Closer to God and Each Other by Robert and Bobbie Wolgemuth (Zondervan)

The Bible begins and ends with marriage. Providing a chronological overview of God's Word, Couples of the Bible is a devotional book tracing the spiritual family tree from Adam and Eve in Genesis to the Bride and Groom in Revelation. Readers see how God has directed marriages through biblical history. With the collection of these couples in one place, the book explores the trials and joys of real relationships in Scripture.

In this scrapbook of the spiritual family tree, readers have the faithful patriarchs and matriarchs who make them proud, and the scoundrels whom they would rather not talk about. Some bring encouragement, others offer a stern warning.

Through the 52-week experience in Couples of the Bible, readers become reacquainted with the obstacles and outcomes of familiar couples like Abraham and Sarah and meet some lesser-known couples like Othniel and Aksah. Readers read their story, learn about their cultural setting and explore how their story can teach them important truths about their own marriage. Each week they are guided with questions applying biblical truth to their relationship with their spouse. And they finish the week with a time of reflection, thanksgiving and prayer.

Authors are Robert and Bobbie Wolgemuth. Robert is an author who graduated from Taylor University in 1969 and received an honorary doctorate from the same university in 2005. Bobbie is a Bible teacher and also an author.

The Bible is full of stories about relationships. God existed in perfection as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit even before He created Eden and crafted humans – a man and a woman – to live in unbroken fellowship with each other and their Creator. Step by step, from Genesis to Revelation, the character of God – His grace, mercy, and love – can be traced through His encounters with men and women, couples of the Bible.

Couples of the Bible provides a view of marriage unlike any other book, because it takes dozens of Bible characters and unpacks the accounts of their lives and marriages. For fifty-two weeks, readers spend a whole week with a biblical couple, learning their story and capturing life lessons from each one – lessons that, if applied, have the capacity to inspire and strengthen their marriage.

Someone has said, "Tomorrow you will be the same person you are today, except for the people you meet and the books you read." The Wolgemuths say they could amend this by suggesting that tomorrow their marriage will be better than it is today because they have met these biblical couples and spent time in the Bible, observing God's gracious character.

After Adam and Eve sinned in the Garden of Eden, they were forced to leave Paradise. Yet, despite the rebellion of the first couple, God was merciful. Then and now He chooses and leads ordinary men and women to display His goodness.

Sometimes people are like Eve; they are prone to pluck at forbidden fruit. Other times they are like Jacob; they panic and try to manipulate situations to fit their needs. Or maybe they are like Zechariah and Elizabeth; they wonder if God will ever give them their longed-for blessing.

The biblical couples readers encounter in Couples of the Bible speak for themselves. Some warn and challenge them to make necessary changes. Others encourage them to persevere and wait for God's perfect timing. All of them show new things about God.

Couples of the Bible has fifty-two chapters. Each chapter highlights one couple in five ways:

  • Monday: Their Story. These pages highlight the relationship of each couple and how they faced challenges or celebrated victories. Although the narrative stays as close as possible to the biblical text, certain scenarios of what might have been happening at the time of the story are imagined. Some conversation in this and other sections is quoted directly from Scripture. Other dialogue is paraphrased. In many cases, Scripture references are given to help readers in their study.
  • Tuesday: Their Life and Times. Knowing what it was like to live in the culture surrounding each couple will add to their understanding. A Jewish Christian researcher provided invaluable help with this feature about what life was like thousands of years ago.
  • Wednesday: Can You Imagine? On this day, readers are invited to put themselves in the place of the couple in the story. What would it have been like to be there? To be them? To face the heartbreak of an unfaithful spouse or to hold a baby after a lifetime of barrenness? This day concludes with help "From God's Word."
  • Thursday: Their Legacy in Scripture. Several key Bible verses and questions are offered for application to their own life and marriage. This short study is helpful to use by oneself, with one’s spouse, or with a group of friends eager to know what God says about the issues married couples face.
  • Friday: Their Legacy of Prayer. The week concludes with a time for reflection, listening, and prayers intended for readers and their spouses.

Reading this together brought us closer to God, to each other, and to the kind of life His Word abundantly promises. Piercing insights. Profound truth. Powerfully moving. – The Farmer Husband and Ann Voskamp, author of the New York Times bestseller, One Thousand Gifts

Robert and Bobbie have performed a true service by looking at the Bible through the prism of marriage. – Philip Yancey, bestselling and award-winning author

An astounding undertaking; the list of couples alone left us breathless. God is still pushing and prodding us today in our marriages. – Joni Eareckson Tada, Founder/CEO of Joni and Friends International Disability Center

Robert and Bobbie tackle the topic of marriage in a fresh and creative way. You can deepen and strengthen your marriage one day at a time. – Gail and Michael Hyatt, bestselling author and speaker

You'll find no better pair to lead you through daily devotions based on the marriages found in Scripture. – Jerry B. Jenkins, novelist and biographer

Robert and Bobbie Wolgemuth make an incredible team – Ann Spangler, coauthor (with Jean Syswerda) of Women of the Bible

Couples of the Bible teaches couples how God guided couples in the past and encourages them to trust in his faithfulness for their marriage. As they read the book together, readers to draw closer to God and to each other.

Religion & Spirituality / Christianity / Theology

Sharing Peace: Mennonites and Catholics in Conversation edited by Gerald W. Schlabach and Margaret R. Pfeil (A Michael Glazier Book: Liturgical Press)

Sharing Peace brings together leading Mennonite and Catholic theologians and ecclesial leaders to reflect on the recent, first-ever international dialogue between the Mennonite World Conference and the Vatican. The search for a shared reading of history, theology of the church and its sacraments or ordinances, and understandings of Christ's call to be peacemakers are its most prominent themes.
Contributors include:

  • Scott Appleby (Kroc Institute, Notre Dame)
  • Alan Kreider (Associated Mennonite Biblical Seminary)
  • Helmut Harder (Mennonite co-chair of the international dialogue)
  • Drew Christiansen, SJ (Georgetown University, Catholic delegate to the international dialogue)
  • John Roth (Goshen College)
  • John Cavadini (University of Notre Dame)
  • C. Arnold Snyder (University of Waterloo)
  • Mary Doak (University of San Diego)
  • Elizabeth Groppe (Xavier University)
  • Thomas Finger (author of A Contemporary Anabaptist Theology)
  • Bishop Gabino Zavala (past president of Pax Christi USA)
  • Duane Friesen (Bethel College, Kansas)
  • Gerald Schlabach (University of St. Thomas)
  • Mary Schertz (Associated Mennonite Biblical Seminary)

Gerald W. Schlabach is professor of theology and director of the Justice and Peace Studies program at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota and cofounder and executive director of Bridgefolk; and Margaret R. Pfeil is assistant professor of moral theology at the University of Notre Dame, a Faculty Fellow of the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, cofounder and resident of St. Peter Claver Catholic Worker House in South Bend, Indiana, and on the board of Bridgefolk.

Sharing Peace includes the full text of two important ecumenical docu­ments – "Called Together to Be Peacemakers" and "Mennonite and Cath­olic Contribution to the World Council of Churches' Decade to Overcome Violence" – that are the fruit of recent Catholic-Mennonite dialogue.

Sharing Peace brings to a wider public a set of essays, presented by notable scholars at a conference held at Notre Dame University in 2007 that analyze Called Together to be Peacemakers, the report of the International Mennonite-Catholic Dialogue (1998-2003). The essays give a critical appreciation of Called Together, showing its ecumenical significance, illustrating its strong points, suggesting its weaknesses, and, in many ways, pointing to issues that could be taken up in a continuing international dialogue or in Mennonite and Catholic cooperation at the grassroots level.

Among international dialogues in which the Roman Catholic Church has participated, Called Together’s concentration on a theology of peace is the most intense, bringing into constructive conversation the rich experience of Mennonites, one of the historic peace churches, with the vast literature and practice of Catholic social teaching. Its reflection on the healing of memories made a substantial contribution to this important ecumenical need, addressed also in other bilateral relationships. Christian communions that have been separated for centuries need to study, seek, and especially experience together the grace of healing memories and relationships as they look toward a future characterized by continuing reconciliation and the hope of Christian unity.

Everything in Called Together, the 2007 conference, and Sharing Peace is about the work of reconciliation. For as Scott Appleby points out in chapter 1, in an almost sacramental way, Called Together embodies the very work of Christian reconciliation that it calls for. But in order to truly engage Mennonites or other historic peace churches in a reconciliatory way, Catholics must also be ready to discuss all the Christian practices and theological commitments that these communions consider to be "the things that make for peace." And in order to engage Catholics in a truly reconciliatory way, Mennonites must be ready to discuss all that the Roman church believes to be signs and offices that are necessary to mark the unity – and thus the peace – of the church itself. As a result, no document, conference, or book on how Mennonites and Catholics are ‘called together to be peacemakers’ could pursue peace without also engaging in sustained conversation concerning ecclesiology, practices of worship and sacrament, honest assessment of the history that has divided these communities, past persecution and martyrdom – all hopefully opening toward mutual confession of past wrongs and a ‘healing of memories.’

The structure of the 2007 conference and of Sharing Peace have therefore followed the essential structure of Called Together to Be Peacemakers. By way of overview and introduction, an opening panel including three participants in the international dialogue began by surveying the significance of the document. The conference then took up the document's major themes – "Considering History Together," "The Nature of the Church," "Sacraments and Ordinances," and "Our Commitment to Peace" – with paired presentations from both Catholic and Mennonite thinkers. Finally, similar to the way that Called Together had concluded by looking forward "Toward a Healing of Memories," a final presentation and respondents explored the possibilities for a shared Mennonite and Catholic future.

The many reports of international dialogues conducted by separated churches, especially since Vatican II, are important in fostering the church unity. These reports should be studied seriously. We are indebted to the editors, Margaret Pfeil and Gerald Schlabach, for this fine volume, which studies intensely one important dialogue report. Both are deeply committed to fostering Mennonite and Catholic relationships, as are many of the contributing authors. The stimulating essays in Sharing Peace help open the ecumenical achievements of Called Together to the public. It is a significant contribution to ecumenical literature from which readers will greatly benefit. – John A. Radano, Seton Hall University January 1, 2013, from the foreword

Sharing Peace demonstrates that Called Together represents another important example of the way in which, through dialogue in the modern ecumenical movement, the bitter conflicts of the sixteenth century are now giving way to concerted mutual efforts of reconciliation. As the contributors to Sharing Peace now share an edited version of the conference, the hope, to seed ideas for continuing scholarship and dialogue in both Mennonite and Catholic communities, continues.

Religion & Spirituality / New Age / History / South Africa

African Temples of the Anunnaki: The Lost Technologies of the Gold Mines of Enki by Michael Tellinger (Bear & Co.)

With more than 250 original full-color photographs, Michael Tellinger, author of Slave Species of the Gods, in African Temples of the Anunnaki documents thousands of circular stone ruins, monoliths, ancient roads, agricultural terraces, and prehistoric mines in South Africa. He shows how these 200,000-year-old sites match Sumerian descriptions of Abzu, the land of the First People – including the vast gold-mining operations of the Anunnaki from the 12th planet, Nibiru, and the city of Anunnaki leader Enki.

African Temples of the Anunnaki:

  • Includes more than 250 original full-color photographs of South Africa’s circular stone ruins, ancient roads, prehistoric mines, large pyramids, and the first Sphinx.
  • Reveals how these 200,000-year-old sites perfectly match Sumerian descriptions of the gold mining operations of the Anunnaki and the city of Enki.
  • Shows how the extensive stone circle complexes are the remains of Tesla-like technology used to generate energy and carve tunnels straight into the Earth.

According to African Temples of the Anunnaki, the ancient history of southern Africa is one of the great mysteries of humankind. While the world has become obsessed with places like Egypt, Mesopotamia, Mexico, and other popularized locations, very few have paid the same kind of attention to the real Cradle of Humankind – southern Africa. Tellinger believes that the discoveries he has been making in southern Africa since 2003 are so astonishing that they will require a dramatic paradigm shift in our perception of human history. People need to set aside preconceived ideas they harbor about who they are and where they come from. This book is a continuation of Tellinger’s research into human’s murky origins as a species.

With aerial photographs, Tellinger in African Temples of the Anunnaki shows how the extensive stone circle and road complexes are laid out according to the principles of sacred geometry and represent the remains of Tesla-like technology used to generate energy and carve immensely long tunnels straight into the Earth in search of gold – tunnels that still exist and whose origins have been a mystery. He declares, with photographic evidence, that the human civilization spawned by the Anunnaki was the first to create totems of ancient Egypt, such as the Horus bird, the Sphinx, the Ankh, and large pyramids. They constructed an accurate stone calendar, at the heart of their civilization, aligned with the Orion constellation. He explores how their petroglyphs, carved into the hardest rock, are nearly identical to the hieroglyphs of Sumerian seals.

Mapping thousands of square miles of continuous settlements and three urban centers – each one larger than modern-day Los Angeles – Tellinger in African Temples of the Anunnaki provides the physical evidence of Zecharia Sitchin’s theories on the Anunnaki origins of humanity.

Tellinger’s research of the past several years, which includes thousands of aerial photographs and hiking through hundreds of kilometers of mountainous terrain, physically exploring thousands of the stone structures, has shown that there are well over 100,000 mysterious stone ruins. This estimate was confirmed in January 2009 by Professor Revil Mason, retired head of archaeology at the University of the Witwatersrand. Mason also suggested that there must have been an ancient population of well over a million people to have erected these structures.

The mystery deepens as readers become aware of the extent and complexity of these ruins in African Temples of the Anunnaki. These stone settlements are not merely scattered, isolated structures or small clusters of stone remains but rather large, densely populated settlements and communities linked by extensive agricultural terraces – all linked by ancient roads that seem to stretch from Mozambique to Botswana and probably beyond. The extended ancient settlement that connects Waterval Boven, Machadodorp, and Carolina covers an area much larger than today’s Johannesburg. While many of these settlements have been destroyed by forestry, farming, and road works, there are still breathtaking examples of these ruins with walls wider than two meters and three meters high. The entire area of ruins and terraces includes all the countries of southern Africa and covers more than 500,000 square kilometers.

But the latest scrutiny of the land using satellite technology reveals even more unbelievable results. No one could have been prepared for the staggering numbers of ruined structures discovered. The numbers are so large that they completely and utterly shatter any previous ideas we may have had about the mysterious and vanished civilizations, our ancient past, and the magnificent lost cities of southern Africa.

The book provides a great deal of archaeological evidence for a civilization on the southern tip of Africa that preceded Sumer and Egypt by 200,000 years. When readers looks at the photographs in African Temples of the Anunnaki their first reaction is to ask why no one before has taken a serious look at these thousands of structures and petroglyphs. The answer is that we become complacent when other people tell us that there is nothing significant about them. Tellinger hopes that this book will demolish that complacency and make readers – believers or not – uncomfortable about the origins of their civilization.

Travel / South America

Moon Living Abroad in Brazil by Michael Sommers (Living Abroad Series: Avalon Travel Publishing)

The notion of moving to Brazil has often been wrapped up in a certain degree of fantasy. The South American giant was somewhere one went if one wanted to get lost in the world's largest rainforest, make a fortune mining precious gemstones, or escape extradition to live in tropical bliss after pulling off a major heist. Mythical projections aside, in an age when earthly paradises are increasingly rare commodities, Brazil pulls off the feat of being one of the most seductive places on the planet.

Few other countries offer year-round access to natural attractions of such sheer beauty and diversity, ranging from glimmering beaches and lush jungles to rugged mountains and endless dunes. It can get hot, but there are no hurricanes, blizzards, or earthquakes, and one never has to wear thermal underwear.

Michael Sommers is an expert on Brazilian life – he’s lived there for 13 years. In Moon Living Abroad in Brazil, he provides firsthand tips on everything from climate to culture. Sommers first traveled to Brazil at the age of four. Twenty years later, he returned to Brazil, where he was seduced by the intense, colorful landscapes, rich cultures, and warm people. Sommers eventually settled down in Salvador, the baroque capital of Bahia, where he has worked as a writer and journalist for over a decade.
Moon Living Abroad in Brazil is packed with essential information and must-have details on setting up daily life, including obtaining visas, arranging finances, gaining employment, choosing schools, and finding health care – plus practical suggestions for how to rent or buy a home for a variety of needs and budgets, whether readers are moving to a metropolis or a more rural location.

If readers have ever imagined themselves living in Brazil, now they can make it happen. With Sommer's expertise, readers have all the tools they need to get started:

  • Essential information on setting up their daily life, including visas, finances, employment, education, and healthcare.
  • Practical advice on how to rent or buy a home that fits their needs and budget.
  • A thorough survey of the best places to live.
  • Firsthand insight into navigating the language and culture.
  • How to plan a fact-finding trip before the move.
  • Special tips for those with children or pets.

What’s to love about Brazil? Here’s Sommers’ list:

  • Luminous blue skies.
  • All the crazy, wonderful stories that people tell (Brazilians are great raconteurs).
  • Tropical fruits such as cupuacu, mangaba, and bacuri.
  • Keeping the windows open 365 days of the year.
  • Nursing a hangover with agua from a freshly machete-cut coconut.
  • Going barefoot.
  • Dancing in the streets.
  • Once in a while a hummingbird flies into the living room.
  • Brazilian music provides the soundtrack to life.
  • Never having to rush.
  • The lyrical, colorful, and impossible-to­remember idiomatic expressions of the Portuguese language.
  • Dozing off in a hammock.
  • The heady perfume that rises from the earth after a sudden tropical downpour.
  • Easy getaways to unspoiled, natural paradises.
  • Breezes rustling in palm fronds.
  • The number of beijos (kisses) and abrafos (hugs) one can rack up on any given day.
  • Brazilians' disarming ability to take a dire, dark situation and make it seem lighter: all about life and living.
  • Knowing that when feeling burned out, stressed out, down and out, one can walk down the street and hurl oneself into the embrace of a perpetually warm, blue ocean.

Engaging, honest, and packed with information ... the Moon Living Abroad series provides well-rounded insight into the country and its culture, and then gives you the real scoop on how to make the best move. – Transitions Abroad

With color and black and white photos, illustrations, and maps to help them find their way, Moon Living Abroad in Brazil helps readers tackle the big move with confidence, all in an easy-to-understand manner.




Contents this Issue:

A President in Yellowstone: The F. Jay Haynes Photographic Album of Chester Arthur's 1883 Expedition by Frank H. Goodyear III, general editor, B. Byron Price (The Charles M. Russell Center Series on Art and Photography of the American West Series Vol. II: University of Oklahoma Press)

My Life with Kangaroos: A Deaf Woman's Remarkable Story by Doris Herrmann, with Michael Gaida & Theres Jöhl, translated by Paul Foster (Gallaudet University Press)

Handbook on Energy and Climate Change edited by Roger Fouquet (Elgar Original Reference Series: Edward Elgar)

Conquering the Chaos: Win in India, Win Everywhere by Ravi Venkatesan (Harvard Business Review Press)

Stewardship: Choosing Service Over Self Interest by Peter Block (Berrett-Koehler)

Great Cruelties Have Been Reported: The 1544 Investigation of the Coronado Expedition by Richard Flint (University of New Mexico Press)

Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi: Volume 1: Essays on America's Civil War edited by Lawrence L. Hewitt, with Arthur W. Bergeron Jr. and Thomas E. Schott, with series editor Gary D. Jointer (The Western Theater in the Civil War Series: The University of Tennessee Press)

Native Americans in the Susquehanna River Valley, Past and Present edited by David J. Minderhout (Stories of the Susquehanna Valley Series, Vol. 1: Bucknell University Press)

Between Giants: The Battle for the Baltics in World War II by Prit Buttar (Osprey Publishing)

Heavenly Hydrangeas: A Practical Guide for the Home Gardener by Joan Harrison (Schiffer Publishing)

Brick City: Global Icons to Make from LEGO by Warren Elsmore (Barron’s Educational Series)

Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach by Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform, Committee on Law and Justice, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and National Research Council (The National Academies Press)

Public Health Law Research: Theory and Methods edited by Alexander C. Wagenaar and Scott C. Burris (Jossey-Bass

Shadows in the Cotswolds by Rebecca Tope (Cotswold Mysteries Series: Allison & Busby)

Extraesophageal Manifestations of GERD edited by Anthony J. DiMarino Jr. MD and Sidney Cohen MD (Slack Incorporated)

Couples of the Bible: A One-Year Devotional Study to Draw You Closer to God and Each Other by Robert and Bobbie Wolgemuth (Zondervan)

Sharing Peace: Mennonites and Catholics in Conversation edited by Gerald W. Schlabach and Margaret R. Pfeil (A Michael Glazier Book: Liturgical Press)

African Temples of the Anunnaki: The Lost Technologies of the Gold Mines of Enki by Michael Tellinger (Bear & Co.)

Moon Living Abroad in Brazil by Michael Sommers (Living Abroad Series: Avalon Travel Publishing)