Contents this Issue:
Creative Dynamics: Diagrammatic strategies in narrative by Christina Ljungberg, with series editors Olga Fisher and Christina Ljungberg (Iconicity in Language and Literature Series Vol 11: John Benjamins Publishing Company)
Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery: Expert Consult – Online and Print (2-Volume Set), 4th edition edited by Nicholas T. Kouchoukos MD, Eugene H. Blackstone MD, Frank L. Hanley MD and James K. Kirklin MD (Elsevier Saunders)
Arts & Photography / Travel
Traveling in Tennessee by Jim O'Rear (Schiffer Publishing Ltd)
In Traveling in Tennessee readers experience the sights, vibes, and unique culture of Tennessee through 375 photographs, interesting facts, and humorous tidbits gathered by photographer Jim O'Rear during his travels across the ‘Volunteer State.’ Author O'Rear has been involved in the entertainment industry for more than twenty-five years as an actor, stuntman, and screenwriter, working on projects such as Stephen King's The Boogeyman, Star Trek 4, Lethal Weapon 3, The Dead Matter, Fall of the House of Usher, Cop & ½, Skarecrow, and Mortal Kombat: Conquest. As a paranormal investigator, O’Rear has appeared in numerous paranormal documentaries, has written two paranormal books and is the founder of Celebrity Ghost Hunters. Traveling in Tennessee is his first travel book.
Tennessee ... home of Elvis Presley's Graceland, the great Smoky Mountains, Beale Street, the Country Music Hall Of Fame, Civil War battlefields, Music City, and the Grand Ole Opry. Readers learn about Tennessee's history, lifestyles, wildlife, and religions as well as the east and west regions. Fun facts tell readers about four seasons – Tennessee style – and the first ever combination candy bar. Readers discover facts about the Opryland Hotel, Nashville music, Gaitlinburg's 10,000 aquarium sea creatures, big-ticket Dollywood, and the ‘Chattanooga Choo Choo.’
As an entertainer, O’Rear says he has traveled from coast to coast and experience various cultures, seen historical sites with his own eyes, witnessed the day-to-day lifestyles of the area locals, and taken part in some significant events. In all of these various travels, Tennessee remains fascinating and he is always surprised by new wonders that he encounters every time he travels through the state.
O’Rear says that as a visual person, images tend to move him and speak to him more than words. In creating Traveling in Tennessee, he captures a variety of images that visually make a statement about Tennessee, from some of the more well-known tourist attractions to many of the lesser-known and unseen areas of the state. He wants readers to experience the culture, lifestyle, history, religions, and people that make up Tennessee. He doesn't want to bog readers down with a lot of descriptive words, but he wants the images to speak for themselves and fill viewers with the same emotions and feelings that he experienced when he first came upon the locations.
Traveling in Tennessee is an exciting trip through the state. It is not a comprehensive guide to Tennessee or an attraction-to-attraction handbook. Whether readers are visiting the homes from the battle of Knoxville, in 1863, or Elvis Presley's Graceland, this coffee-table book is a celebration of Tennessee that should thrill everyone from hard-core travelers to casual Tennessee residents.
Business & Investing / Small Business & Entrepreneurship
Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research edited by Jill Kickul and Sopie Bacq (Edward Elgar)
Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research outlines the complexities peculiar to the field of social entrepreneurship. Such complexities manifest at different moments in the development of a social entrepreneurial venture. The book ties together many of the pressing issues and questions encountered by social entrepreneurs and innovators as they identify, create, develop and sustain their own solutions throughout the life-cycle of their ventures.
Editors of Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research are Jill Kickul, Director of the NYU-Stern Program in Social Entrepreneurship at New York University Stern School of Business and Sophie Bacq, Assistant Professor at Northeastern University, D'Amore-McKim School of Business, Boston. Contributors include: S. Bacq, E. Bennett, D. Bhutiani, B. Bird, R. Bissola, J.E. Clarkin, M. Conger, D.D. Deardurff, M. Fakhreddin, K. Flicker, A. Gallagher, D. Gregory, A. Groen, B. Imperatori, A. Katre, J.A. Kerlin, J. Kickul, R. Leaver, M. Meyskens, S.J. Mezias, T.W. Moss, P. Nair, S. Perelli, F. Perrini, K. Ramirez, P. Salipante, J.I. Soh, S. Teasdale, C. Vurro, and D.R. Young.
The contributors to Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research focus on the individual, organizational and institutional levels of social entrepreneurship. They address the role of personal values and leadership in the conduct of social entrepreneurial initiatives while stressing the importance of stakeholders in relation to human resource management, innovation or opportunity discovery. Finally, they analyze the role of institutions in legitimating social entrepreneurs' actions.
According to Kickul and Bacq in the introduction, the future of social entrepreneurship abounds with possibilities to address and potentially solve some of society's most intractable problems resulting from market or government inadequacies and failures. Whether these problems are found in the healthcare, education, energy, housing or other sectors, it will be current and future social entrepreneurs who rise to the challenge and use their abilities to recognize opportunities and mobilize others to take collective action. Because social entrepreneurs often operate in resource-constrained environments, they are usually compelled to use creative approaches to attract and apply those resources in novel ways to the challenges they face. Moreover, it is often the social entrepreneur who encourages a heightened sense of accountability in the individuals and communities they serve, as well as instigating the outcomes and impact that are created.
There are certain `patterns' and themes that have captured the interest of researchers in this field that complement these very issues and challenges faced within a social venture's life cycle and the authors pull these together. Social entrepreneurship, as a multidisciplinary field, presents a unique opportunity and environment for researchers to contribute to academic-focused knowledge on both theoretical frameworks and practical skills on a holistic level. The 11 chapters in Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research adopt different research perspectives to study social entrepreneurship. The editors classified them into four parts, addressing different aspects of the phenomenon. Part I focuses on the process of opportunity recognition, exploration and exploitation in the case of social entrepreneurship.
In Chapter 1 of Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research, Clarkin, Deardurff and Gallagher examine the prerequisites for opportunity discovery by social entrepreneurs and determine what factors in the social sector context influence processes of opportunity recognition by social entrepreneurs. The authors focus on 501(c)(3) charitable organizations in six Midwest US cities, thereby presumably reducing environmental heterogeneity. Their analysis reveals that the social sector context is complex and diverse, and that the number of organizations, their area of focus, and revenues vary substantially among regions with similar geographic and demographic characteristics in the US. The authors conclude that more favorable opportunities for social entrepreneurs may exist in one area of the US and may not in others.
In Chapter 2, Perrini and Vurro provide a stakeholder-based analysis of the relevance of planning in the shift from opportunity recognition to exploitation of a social entrepreneurial project. Based on empirical evidence emerging from the analysis of planning efforts in the pre-launching stages of a real case, they elaborate on the main challenges and key characteristics of planning in the social sector. Perrini and Vurro conclude that planning emerges as a useful tool to reconcile conflicting objectives in the pursuit of the social mission, motivating personnel, partners and stakeholders around specific tasks and. expected results, while reducing ambiguity by its support to procedure formalization.
In Chapter 3, Meyskens and Moss explore the nature of innovation taking place in the green-tech sector and its role in the creation of greater social and environmental value. They use disruptive innovation as a lens to analyze the content of the 20 green-tech business plans. Their findings suggest that many green-tech ventures develop innovations that can be considered both sustaining and new-market disruptions. In addition their results suggest that environmental and economic value creation is more prevalent in green-tech ventures with new market disruptive innovations, while social value creation is slightly more prevalent in green techs with sustaining innovations. Thus, Meyskens and Moss recommend that social venture practitioners should develop innovative practices and products that cater to both existing and new markets.
Part II of Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research focuses on the individual level of social entrepreneurship and addresses the role of personal values and leadership in the conduct of social entrepreneurial initiatives. In Chapter 4 Conger focuses on the individual entrepreneur and the goals of the ventures they create to examine the question of how an entrepreneur's values influence the kind of venture he/she will create. Conger develops a model explaining the role of values as a driver of entrepreneurial action with the purpose of creating social or environmental benefits over and above economic benefits.
In Chapter 5, Bhutiani, Flicker, Nair and Groen question whether social entrepreneurship is transformational leadership in action. Based on the argument that transformational leaders are essential to building sustainable organizations that consistently create wealth and contribute to the well-being of employees, the authors suggest that letting aspiring leaders get involved in social entrepreneurial ventures is an effective way to groom future transformational leaders. The authors develop a framework and use it to study three of the most famous social entrepreneurs turned transformational leaders, namely Mother Teresa, Mahatma Gandhi and Wangari Maathai.
Part III of Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research stresses the importance of stakeholder theory as a relevant approach to study social entrepreneurship. In Chapter 6, Bissola and Imperatori combine the stakeholder and the social exchange theories to propose a stakeholder configuration model for the social enterprise domain. They ground their arguments on a single case study of an emblematic and successful Italian social enterprise, operating in the care, support and education of disadvantaged children and young people. The authors identify four kinds of organization-stakeholder relationships, characterized by different types of stakeholder engagement.
In Chapter 7, Moss and Meyskens explore how stakeholder salience affects the mechanisms that underlie disruptive innovation. The authors postulate that traditional ideas of disruptive innovation based on customer power and resource allocation may be generalized when key assumptions are relaxed. While highlighting how these ideas are particularly germane to research in social entrepreneurship, the authors also underscore the need for practitioners to be aware of the importance of assessing the deleterious or helpful effects stakeholders may have on disruptive innovation.
In Chapter 8, Katre, Salipante, Perelli and Bird invite readers to think about the perpetual balancing act between collaboration and competition which social entrepreneurs engage in during interactions with mission versus business stakeholders. Using stakeholder and social identity theories as conceptual lenses, they qualitatively analyze 31 early-stage social ventures and the entrepreneur-stakeholder interactions. This chapter highlights that successful entrepreneurs consciously create diverse social identities and manage them through a sufficiently large behavioral repertoire.
In Chapter 9, Young, Kerlin, Teasdale and Soh focus on the long-term dynamics of social enterprises. Given their intrinsic tensions that can lead to long-term instability, fundamental transformation or demise, social enterprises try to balance market success with social impact, and a host of different organizational forms have been devised to achieve different versions of this balance. To deal with this important issue, the authors offer a new conceptual framework based on the concepts of stable and unstable equilibrium and use it to analyze six case studies of social enterprise, spanning several nonprofit and for-profit arrangements, each coping with the tensions between achieving social purpose and market success.
Finally, Part IV investigates the process of legitimation of social entrepreneurship in society, either through the creation of a label recognizing a `true' social enterprise, or by means of private movements that take place at the institutional, community level. Based on the assumption that not every business or nonprofit fits the definition and mission of a `social enterprise', in Chapter 10, Bennett, Gregory, Leaver and Ramirez apply the lessons learned from the fair trade sector – a pioneer in today's world of voluntary, ethical certification solutions – to the creation of a `social enterprise' certification. Using the case of a support organization for social enterprises based in Rhode Island, this chapter describes their investigations on existing models, their process of creating a definition and criteria, their findings, and the resulting Buy with HeartTM verification process.
In Chapter 11, the last chapter of Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research, Mezias and Fakhreddin adopt an institutional perspective at the community level to study the need for, yet challenges posed by, private social entrepreneurial initiatives in the context of emerging economies. They focus on the frequent failure to spur community economic development of top-down interventions emanating from the public sector and call for bottom-up private actions, in particular, corporate social action. They discuss two examples from the Middle East to illustrate three categories of institutions on which private efforts should subsequently focus. The authors provide some recommendations to aid social entrepreneurs and practitioners as they try to spur effective change in emerging economies.
This is an excellent collection of papers that makes a significant contribution to the academic literature on social entrepreneurship. As well as highlighting opportunities for research in this area, the book emphasizes three issues that are central to social entrepreneurship – the role of leadership, the role of stakeholders, and the role of legitimacy – about which relatively little has been written. It therefore constitutes an important resource for social entrepreneurship researchers. – Paul Tracey, University of Cambridge
This book is a compelling collection of key contributions in social entrepreneurship scholarship. It should be essential reading for all those seeking to understand the practical complexity and research richness of this emerging field. – Alex Nicholls, University of Oxford
Social entrepreneurship, as a multi-disciplinary field, presents a unique opportunity and environment for researchers to contribute to academic-focused knowledge on both theoretical frameworks and practical skills on a holistic level. Patterns in Social Entrepreneurship Research offers a comprehensive foundation for this endeavor.
Although much work remains, the book is a first step in that direction and points the way forward for social entrepreneurship researchers.
Children, Young Adult & Adult / Biographies & Memoirs / Presidents & Heads of State
George Washington: An Interactive Biography by Rod Gragg (Pelican Publishing Company)
I want an American character, that the power of Europe may be convinced we act for ourselves, and not for others; this in my judgment, is the only way to be respected abroad and happy at home. – George Washington to Patrick Henry, October 8, 1795
At the end of his presidency, [George Washington] published a farewell address that left the American people a legacy of wise advice: Live as a patriot, he advised. Cherish liberty and oppose despotism. Prepare for war, but strive for peace. Seek the public good rather than political power. Avoid national debt, and be responsible citizens. And never forget the true foundations of the American nation. – from the book
This interactive biography reveals anew why Washington is proclaimed as the "Father of Our Country" and remains America's most-beloved president.
Readers become a part of history with this interactive book about George Washington. From the documents that drafted a nation to hand written notes from George Washington himself, George Washington is a treasure trove of historical information. Opening with a detailed description of Washington's death from a common infection and his harrowing final moments, each chapter is meticulously researched and documented with reference material and details of Washington's life. Inside hidden pockets and envelopes are documents, letters, and facts guaranteed to keep even the most jaded readers enthralled as they learn about one of America's founding fathers and the first president of the United States. The work was written by Rod Gragg, director of the Center for Military & Veterans Studies at Coastal Carolina University.
Tucked away throughout George Washington is ‘history you can hold’ – authentically reproduced letters, diary pages, maps, sketches, official orders, and artifacts from Washington's life which can be removed for close examination. Through these reproductions, readers can study and enjoy primary-source materials normally accessible only to historians.
Readers experience the life of George Washington through artifacts and documents that can be removed from the book and examined – including:
Graced by a captivating fast-paced narrative and intricate, colorful design, George Washington literally places history in the hands of readers through a fascinating collection of Washington artifacts and documents. Never have readers had the opportunity to examine Washington's extraordinary life and times in such a personal and intriguing way.
Health & Fitness / Psychology & Counseling / Clinical Guides
The Clinician's Guide to Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Spectrum Disorders: Integrating Techniques and Applications from CBT, DBT, and ACT by Timothy A. Sisemore (New Harbinger Publications, Inc.)
As a mental health professional, it can be difficult to help anxious clients face their fears and anxieties. Exposure therapy is widely appreciated as one of the most effective therapeutic treatments for anxiety spectrum disorders; however, it is often underutilized due to problems that present themselves during treatment, such as client unwillingness or hesitancy, or a lack of understanding on the professional’s part regarding targeted applications. The Clinician's Guide to Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Spectrum Disorders offers guidance in creating specific exposure exercises for clients’ individual fears and phobias, as well as tools to help readers and their clients overcome common roadblocks that arise during exposure therapy.
In addition, this clinician’s guide presents detailed solutions and specific exposure strategies for the most common fears and phobias that clients experience. They learn to implement exposure therapy and integrate it with other evidence-based practices, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The Clinician's Guide to Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Spectrum Disorders also includes reproducible worksheets they can use to help clients develop hierarchies of exposure and information about using prolonged exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder.
The author is Timothy A. Sisemore, PhD, professor of psychology and counseling and director of research at Richmont Graduate University in Chattanooga.
The new accountability in psychotherapy has its downsides, including that, while managed care pushes therapists to use techniques supported by science, the best methods are not always the easiest or the most familiar. Exposure therapy (ET), and its companion, response prevention (RP), are excellent examples of unfamiliar but effective methods. Though they are undoubtedly evidence-based and typically relatively short-term, they are often overlooked by clinicians. That is of concern, as they effectively treat the spectrum of anxiety disorders, the most common group of mental health problems.
The National Institute of Mental Health's (2009) brochure on anxiety disorders and their treatment lists only two recommended therapies: pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, much of the article focuses on the oft-forgotten ‘behavioral’ part of CBT, which in this case is exposure therapy. Despite such support, ET remains undervalued and relatively unknown. Yet, the bottom line is that it works. ET does not help everyone, 70 to 90 percent of those receiving ET benefit from it.
The Clinician's Guide to Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Spectrum Disorders is intended to help clinicians better understand both exposure therapy and response prevention and to use them effectively. It provides a grounding in exposure therapies and response prevention and a guide to how to use them across the spectrum of anxiety disorders. Moreover, exposure therapy and response prevention fit into the context of cognitive behavioral therapy and newer, ‘third-wave’ versions of CBT. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are proving their mettle in research, and exposure therapy serves a vital role in these.
Part I begins with an examination of the roots and development of exposure therapy and response prevention, and, in Chapter 2, a consideration of the evidence for these tools' effectiveness. Chapter 3 shows how escape and avoidance behaviors perpetuate anxiety and how these behaviors are to be addressed with ET and (particularly) RP. This sets the stage for a detailed exposition in Chapter 4 of how EP works and how it is to be implemented in counseling, including a discussion of the various types of exposures that may be used. The next chapters (5, 6, and 7) provide a discussion of how ET and RP fit in broader treatment plans based in cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. Edna Foa has developed an important variant of ET called prolonged exposure therapy. An overview of this variation and its take on the role of emotional processing, along with accounts of narrative exposure therapy and emotion exposure, comprise Chapter 8. Chapter 9 is a guide to how to use the disorder-specific menus of exposure ideas in Part II.
Part II follows the proposed categories of the DSM-5 (drawn from the DSM development site: American Psychiatric Association, 2012) to list many of the most common fears to which ET can be applied, offering suggestions of imaginal (in one's imagination), virtual reality, interoceptive (physiological sensations associated with anxiety), and in vivo (in the actual situation) exposures to each as applicable. This is intended to stimulate clinicians’ thinking and aid in customizing the principles of ET to individual client needs.
If clinicians are looking for a powerful resource for treating anxiety disorders, this is it. The Clinician's Guide to Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Spectrum Disorders will give them effective, evidence-based tools to utilize in treating clients with anxiety, in conjunction with warm clinical regard for the client and understanding of the challenges anxiety poses. With gentle support, these tools can help many to live more meaningful and placid lives not controlled or burdened by undue anxiety.
Health & Fitness / Self-Help
Making Habits, Breaking Habits: Why We Do Things, Why We Don't, and How to Make Any Change Stick by Jeremy Dean (DaCapo Lifelong)
One of the goals of habit change is to make ourselves happier. We might be trying to improve our work habits so we can get more done in less time or our socializing habits so we can spend more time with friends and family. Good habits can do all sorts of things for us, but will they make us happy? ...
Habits, if they take complete control, can lock us into the same boring grooves. The challenge is to work out which habits keep leading to dead ends and which habits lead to interesting new experiences, happiness, and a sense of personal satisfaction. – from the book
Habits are more powerful than willpower – if readers know how to make them work.
Whether it's snacking in the middle of the night or having a cigarette with the morning coffee, everyone has routines they follow day after day – even if they're habits they never consciously meant to embrace. But with a little effort, it isn't too difficult to make or break a habit, right? Maybe not. After all, how many New Year's resolutions have actually ever been stuck to?
In familiar situations, most people let habits rule them. At least a third of our waking hours are lived on autopilot – ruminating over past events, for example, or clicking through websites trawling for updates. But habits of the mind do not have to control us – we can steer them.
How long does it take to form a new habit? Say
one wants to go to the gym regularly, learn a new language, make new
friends, practice a musical instrument, or use their work time more
profitably. How long should it take before these become a part of
their routine rather than something they have to force themselves to
do? The surprising answer is found in
Making Habits, Breaking Habits, a psychologist’s popular
examination of one of the most powerful and under-appreciated
processes in the mind.
Drawing on hundreds of studies, psychologist Jeremy Dean busts the myths to explain why seemingly easy habits, like eating an apple a day, can be surprisingly difficult to form, and how to take charge of the brain’s natural ‘autopilot’ to make any change stick. Dean is the founder and author of the popular website ‘PsyBlog’, which is viewed by upwards of 1 million readers monthly.
In Making Habits, Breaking Habits, Dean explores the anatomy of habit-forming behavior, offering tips and solutions for those who have tried again and again to alter bad behavior or institute good behavior, only to give up after the first week. Dean begins with an exploration of the birth habits and the unconscious mind's part in their development, then takes readers through the various ways habits are built, reinforced, and strengthened throughout our lives – from childhood, to work environments, to social interactions. He highlights the difficulties that arise when they try to break these deeply ingrained routines, shedding light on why it can take weeks, even months, to create and implement new behaviors or weed out old ones. Instead of falling victim to frustration, readers learn how to navigate habit-forming pitfalls and successfully build new, long-lasting practices.
To make his advice more relatable, Dean includes real-life examples, like the college students who cut down on TV and increased their exercise, and the heavy smokers who quit by replacing cigarettes with gum in situations where they were driven to smoke. No matter the vice (e.g. candy, carbs, or caffeine), no matter the goal (e.g. getting more sleep, drinking less alcohol, or going to the gym after work), Dean in Making Habits, Breaking Habits shows readers that any habit change is possible.
Sensible and very readable… By far the most useful of this month’s New You offerings. – The Bookseller, Editor’s Pick
Making changes does take longer than we may expect – no 30-day, 30-pounds-lighter quick fix – but by following the guidelines laid out by Dean, readers have a decent chance at establishing fulfilling, new patterns. – Kirkus Reviews
An accessible and informative guide for readers to take control of their lives. – Publishers Weekly
Witty and intriguing, provocative and practical, Making Habits, Breaking Habits shows how behavior is more than just a product of what one thinks. The book provides unexpected and fascinating answers to the common problem of changing one’s habits.
History / Military / World War II
The Pointblank Directive: Three Generals and the Untold Story of the Daring Plan that Saved D-Day by L. Douglas Keeney (General Military Series: Osprey Publishing)
D-Day must surely be the most important airpower achievement in the history of military aviation. Not a single significant air attack was mounted by the Germans as the invasion forces battled to get ashore the Normandy beaches, and that may very well be why the infantry finally pushed over the bluffs on Omaha Beach when by the slimmest of margins they neared being thrown back. – from the book
Where was the Luftwaffe on D-Day? Historians
have debated that question for six decades, but in 2010 a formerly
classified World War II D-Day history was restored, and in it were a
new set of answers.
The Pointblank Directive is the result of extensive research
using that newly restored history to create a portrait of air power
and leadership, and perhaps the last untold story of D-Day: the
story of three uniquely talented men and why, on the single most
important day to the survival of the Third Reich, the German Air
Force was unable to mount a single effective combat mission against
the invasion forces.
As told in The Pointblank Directive, after a year of unremarkable bombing against Germany aircraft industry, and with just five months to go until D-Day, General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, commander of the United States Army Air Forces placed his lifelong friend General Carl A. "Tooey" Spaatz in command of the strategic bombing forces in Europe and gave his protégé, General James "Jimmy" Doolittle command of the Eighth Air Force in England. For these fellow aviation pioneers and air war strategists, he had but one set of orders: Sweep the skies clean of the Luftwaffe by June 1944. Spaatz and Doolittle couldn't do that, but they could do what Arnold really wanted: Clear the skies sufficiently to gain air superiority over the D-Day beaches. The plan was called Pointblank.
In The Pointblank Directive, L. Douglas Keeney reconstructs the events in the air war that led up to D-Day while painting an in-depth portrait of the lives and times of these aviation pioneers. Keeney has been writing military non-fiction for sixteen years and is a well-known researcher among archivists where formerly classified documents repose. He cofounded The Military Channel and is presently the on-air host for On Target.
On December 6, 1943, President Roosevelt appointed Dwight Eisenhower as the Supreme Allied Commander over D-Day. Two days later, Eisenhower reshuffled the air command for Europe, moving out General Ira Eaker, who had overseen Schweinfurt-Regensburg, and bringing in Spaatz, who was fresh from airwar victories in North Africa. Spaatz quickly changed tactics, giving the fighter escorts greater leeway to aggressively engage with the enemy. The changes proved crucial to the air superiority the Allies achieved on June 6, 1944 – D-Day.
On November 14, 1938, Roosevelt called in his military advisors and demanded a "huge air force so we do not need to have a huge army to follow that air force." Arnold, the only aviator in the room, began figuring production numbers in his head. The bombers and fighters, as we now know, gave Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower the air superiority he needed over the D-Day beaches and began the march to Berlin that brought Hitler down.
The Allied bombing campaign was ordered by Churchill and Roosevelt at the Casablanca Conference of January 1943. There, the two leaders announced that the combined Allied offensive war in Western Europe would begin in the air, with round-the-clock bombing of Germany's military, oil, industrial, and transportation infrastructure. RAF's Bomber Command would take the night shift, and America's Eighth, Ninth, and Fifteenth Air Forces would bomb by day. The communique issued at Casablanca included the following unambiguous goal for the Allied air forces: "The progressive destruction and dislocation of the morale of the German military, industrial and economic system and the undermining of the morale of the German people, to the point where their capacity for armed resistance is fatally weakened."
In February 1944, as the Allies were preparing to unleash the full fury of The Pointblank Directive through a week of continuous bombing that would rank as the most violent aerial combat yet, Churchill took a moment to address the issue of terror bombing in the House of Commons, reminding the world and Hitler of both the Blitz and the hangman. "I shall not moralize further than to say that there is a strange, stern justice in the long swing of events."
Bombers were the only way to strike Germany until the Allies could mount D-Day. Said one military historian: "Without the bombing campaign, German industry would have been able to increase war production capacity many times over if required. Bombing disrupted production and held the full potential of the German industrial machine in check." Historian Richard Overy was more to the point: "The critical question is not so much `What did bombing do to Germany?' but `What could Germany have achieved if there had been no bombing?"
The airwar victory justly stands as one of the most important accomplishments of the Allied air forces. Had the Luftwaffe freely roamed the skies, the invasion, already one of the bloodiest days of World War II, might very well have been a stunning setback. We have a noble group of airmen to thank. Air superiority paved the way to the end of the Third Reich. – Stephen Frater, author of Hell Above Earth
A thoroughly satisfying read: informative and entertaining. What is always mind-boggling is the sacrifice made in any war. The Pointblank Directive shows quite clearly what the airwar leading up to D-Day cost both sides of the conflict. More importantly, it fills a needed gap in knowledge of exactly how critical the proper air campaign can be in determining the ground conflict. Historians and students of World War II history alike will be well-served reading this book. – Bernie Chowdhury, author of The Last Dive: A Father and Son's Fatal Descent into the Ocean's Depths
The Pointblank Directive is a richly textured portrait of air power and leadership, possibly the last untold story of D-Day. Using extensive new research, Keeney carefully reconstructs the events that led up to the success of that battle.
Home & Garden / Crafts & Hobbies / Gardening
The Vegetable Gardener's Guide to Permaculture: Creating an Edible Ecosystem by Christopher Shein, with Julie Thompson (Timber Press)
The Vegetable Gardener's Guide to Permaculture teaches gardeners of every skill – with any size space – how to live in harmony with both nature and neighbors to produce and share an abundant food supply with minimal effort. Permaculture teacher Christopher Shein highlights everything readers need to know to start living off the land lightly, including how to create rich, healthy, and low-cost soil, blend a functional food garden and decorative landscape, and share the bounty with others.
Shein has started dozens of community, school, and market gardens. He teaches permaculture at Merritt Community College where he helped develop the award-winning student farm. Shein also owns Wildheart Gardens, a permaculture landscape business that designs and builds sustainable gardens.
According to Shein, making ecological gardens is about working less hard, but smarter. The Vegetable Gardener's Guide to Permaculture illustrates how to build a thriving food forest at home with the least possible expenditure of time, effort, and the earth's resources. By updating ancient techniques from cultures around the world, Shein has developed a step-by-step process for designing the ideal edible garden. The permaculture approach goes beyond organic to produce abundant fruits and vegetables in a more holistic and sustainable way. Permaculture is an ancient yet cutting-edge technology. The ethics, principles, techniques, and strategies it employs are inspired by indigenous land practices around the world. Shein says his travels in Mexico and Central America and his work with the permaculture community have convinced him that people need to try to reweave the web of life into whole cloth. Permaculture not only aims to make the soil productive, but also to make enough room for everyone to come to the table and eat. His own five-year-old permaculture garden feeds him and his family every day, as well as many other friends and neighbors.
The Vegetable Gardener's Guide to Permaculture is a practical guide to basic ecological literacy and permaculture gardening. Shein breaks down the techniques and language of permaculture to show that any gardener can be a positive asset to the interconnected web of life. Planting a permaculture garden is a dream for many people who have even a small amount of land, and permaculture is a viable ecological design strategy suited to anyone's backyard – or even to a front yard, rooftop, balcony, neighbor's garden, school garden, or community garden. By updating ancient techniques from cultures around the world, Shein takes readers step-by-step through the process of designing their ideal edible garden with the most productive fruits and vegetables.
Chris Shein captures the essence of permaculture practice for any landscape and any gardener. This book will be a classroom and garden staple. – Claudia Joseph, director of environmental education for The Old Stone House, Brooklyn, New York
A masterful distillation of permaculture in a way that is easy to apply to our gardens, farms, and lives today. – David Cody, founder, Urban Permaculture Institute
This encouraging, user-friendly book teaches you how to transition from simple vegetable gardening to creating a holistic, edible ecosystem in your own backyard. – Jude Hobbs, founder, Cascadia Permaculture
The Vegetable Gardener's Guide to Permaculture is an inspiring, easy-to-follow, information-packed guide that will help readers transform their gardens into food forests that feeds them for years to come. Readers take their organic gardening to the next level by learning the low-maintenance secrets of permaculture.
Humanities / Linguistics
Creative Dynamics: Diagrammatic strategies in narrative by Christina Ljungberg, with series editors Olga Fisher and Christina Ljungberg (Iconicity in Language and Literature Series Vol 11: John Benjamins Publishing Company)
How do readers make sense of a picture, a photograph, or a map in literary narratives in which visual signs play a critical role? How do authors accomplish their various objectives in constructing such complex texts? What strategies and techniques do they use to project fictional worlds and to provide their readers with the means for orienting themselves there?
Creative Dynamics investigates the dynamics of the imaginary diagrams created by cartographers, photographers, and writers of narratives, giving evidence of how mapping practices have inspired the imagination of a vast number of authors from Thomas More up to contemporary writers. A special focus is on the effects created by the projection of photographs into the narrative space, and how the seemingly effortless interpretation of photographs and even maps masks complex cognitive processes. The theoretical horizon of Creative Dynamics encompasses the fields of cartography, mental maps, iconicity research, and the spatial turn in cultural studies.
The author is Christina Ljungberg, University of Zurich. Ljungberg says that viewing an image is to some extent always a process of interpretation, of making sense out of what is visually displayed. Such viewing could therefore be said to be an instance of reading. In turn, reading words on a page or other surface depends, on various levels, of responding perceptually – and indeed perceptively – to what is presented through these symbols.
How do images and text function together in fiction? What visual strategies do writers use to make readers see the fictional world presented in the text? These fictional narratives often turn around a visual artifact such as a photograph or a map which they allude to or include, not only as actual photographs, maps or charts inserted into the text but also as carefully described in it, sometimes even presenting the key to the narrative's or story's concern or mirroring the structure of the text and/or plot. What Ljungberg does in Creative Dynamics is explore what such an interaction generates. She calls her undertaking diagramming or mapping, and ties this exploration to two concepts, thinking cartographically and thinking photographically which are both closely connected with thinking diagrammatically and reading diagrammatically, in order to see what this generates in fictional texts.
According to Ljungberg, there is a human need to make diagrams and maps of our environment, and to place ourselves and our actions in relationship to it – as well to place those of others, which is after all what writers do. This necessity can be discerned by a careful examination of literary texts in which maps and charts, photographs and sketches are elements of the plot. In these cases, the relationship between visual and verbal representations is not extraneous or incidental to the literary texts themselves. When an individual constructs and uses a map, or includes a photograph that carries information deviating from or influencing the plot, the question of what a character or the author is doing needs to be addressed. This question concerns what is commonly called the performative dimension of human discourse. The concept of the performative is that dimension of discourse which generates new `realities'. Performative utterances are neither true nor false since the reality to which they refer is only created by their being uttered. Authors of works of literature, a film or a film adaptation of a literary work may be said to create performatively. In literary analysis, critical attention to the performative dimension of human discourse, from the author's narrative performance to the characters' discursive performance, is accordingly necessary.
The chapters in Creative Dynamics focus on the performative interaction between verbal and visual diagrams in literature and culture. Cartographic and photographic representations transform the three-dimensional world into a two-dimensional, non-linear and non-sequential one. Reading maps and photographs is a nonlinear process, as is navigating on the internet. The insertion of spatial diagrams into the verbal text produces a creative interplay between the verbal and the visual narrative, which is generated by the juxtaposition of the two media. Shifting between them, attentive readers are forced not only to reflect on the various strategies of representation but also to apply different interpretive tactics of creating new mental spaces in which they can orient themselves.
Creative Dynamics concerns both map making and map reading in literary texts, including the deployment of various media for this undertaking. Ljungberg’s investigation primarily concerns the space generated when different media interact, and the visual and spatial strategies a writer uses to create dynamism and presence in order to bring to the fore contemporary existential concerns and problematics. On the one hand, it focuses on how diagrams work within various media such as texts, maps, and photographs to create presence and effect, which is an area that has not been sufficiently explored so far. On the other hand, mapping is used as a methodology to investigate how the insertion of diagrammatic figurations and of diagrams such as photographs and maps in narrative generates a dynamic interplay that makes these texts procedural and performative, by figuring, visualizing and conceptualizing new intellectual topographies of space.
The key notion is the diagram. Diagrams are spatial embodiments of knowledge with a peculiar potential to stimulate new cognitive engagements. Ljungberg’s interest in these intermedial interfaces is therefore less directed at finished products and much more at the dynamic interplay generated by the juxtaposition, of ‘visual culture’ and ‘print culture’ in these texts. That is why Creative Dynamics' focus is on the maps and photographs that authors themselves have drawn and placed in their works, as well as explicitly diagrammatic verbal mapping of their (fictional) environment.
Creative Dynamics starts by exploring mapping practices in various forms and contexts. What is a map and how does it function? What is the difference between a map and diagram, and how can we define them? Departing from the map which kicks off the adventure in James Dickey's novel Deliverance, she continues to investigate the relationship between cartographic signs and verbal language, and the strategies used to locate geographical features on maps and in texts.
Chapter 2, "Cartographic Writing", deals with historical maps in texts and their history. It explores how these maps are semanticized and historically different, and how history and discourse mirror each other. The remarkable popularity of maps in fictional works suggests that maps had multiple uses as strategies for avoiding censorship, voicing divergent opinions, commenting on contemporary mores or issues of subjectivity. It shows the effectiveness the inclusion of maps into fictional works achieved as these works exemplarily exploit the pull created by the juxtaposition of the two semiotic systems of cartography and writing.
Chapter 3, "Reading as Remapping: Cartographic Performances", explores map use in modern and postmodern fiction which seems to place a much stronger emphasis on cartographic performance. These various uses may explain why the fascination with maps has continued to grow steadily from modernist writers to this day and even become amplified by the increasing awareness of the usefulness of maps to chart and exemplify both cognitive, philosophical and communicative cultural processes.
These concerns are shared by postcolonial writers whose use of maps is the topic of discussion in Chapter 4, "Postcolonial Mapping". They show the extent to which maps represent the relationship between postcolonial space and social construction and lay open the relationship among spatial perception, visual representation, and power. Moreover, they function to discuss the body as landscape and as a repository of inherited wrongs, often employing figurative verbal and visual devices as maps to facilitate and instigate a rereading of traditional texts and strategies.
Chapter 5, "Remapping the past: The case with photography", addresses the question of the effect that the insertion of figurative elements, such as photographs, has for literary texts and how the ensuing verbal and visual diagrams relate to one another. Mapping once again comes to the fore as these texts chart geographical, political and cultural space in which not only maps themselves but also texts and photographs become instances of mapping.
Chapter 6, "Cognitive approaches to text interpretation" looks at so-called ‘cognitive maps’ and the mapping of what happens when we read fictional texts. Drawing on research within cognitive theory and semiotics, as well as on the rapidly increasing body of cognitive studies in literature the discussion explores how we seem to use diagrams or schemata as sets of (text-)building instructions for the production of the fictional world in our minds.
Ljungberg examines the devices of cartographic writing and discovers mappings and re-mappings in writings from Thomas More to postcolonial novelists. The analytic panorama resulting from her investigations give ample support to her main thesis, namely that imaginary spaces are mental diagrams. – Winfried Noth, PUC Sao Paulo
This well-illustrated study brings together two fresh approaches for an understanding of the modern novel: iconicity studies and cartography. Casting new light on the role played by maps and photographs in fiction of the past three centuries, it is a pleasure to read. – John J. White, King's College London
Christina Ljungberg stops readers in their tracks, forcing them to think anew about familiar topics and to consider carefully what is typically overlooked. – Vincent M. Colapietro, The Pennsylvania State University
Ljungberg clarifies the cognitive operations we use to make sense of verbal and visual diagrams in literature and culture. The result is a penetrating and insightful study at the intersection of cognitive science and the arts. – Mark Turner, Case Western University
Creative Dynamics is an insightful and well-illustrated study exploring the way that images and text function together, the role of maps in fiction, the human need to make mental diagrams and how we do that.
Literature & Fiction / Short Stories
Zix Zexy Ztories by Curt Leviant (Modern Jewish Literature and Culture Series: Texas Tech University Press)
In Zix Zexy Ztories Curt Leviant’s wry, funny tales of love and desire are set in various locales – the deep South, Boston, New York, Italy, Israel. The protagonists are men, women, guys and gals of various backgrounds and ages. Some are teenagers; others are students, writers, salesmen, teachers; there’s even a great-grandfather in the mix. Readers meet Holocaust survivors, a pretty petty thief, a playwright, students on vacation, a Polish gentile woman in love with Jewish history, a non-Jewish Holocaust historian, a book salesman, a Yiddish artist, a synagogue architect, a secretary at Harvard, and other delectable characters.
What unites all these disparate people is the universal desire for love and affection – some claw, some snag, others just wait. And some even succeed.
Leviant is the author of seven critically acclaimed novels. His stories have appeared in many American magazines and have been included in Best American Stories and Prize Stories: the O. Henry Awards and other anthologies. The series editor of the Modern Jewish Literature and Culture series is Robert A. Mandel.
Chapters of Zix Zexy Ztories include:
Leviant’s earlier works have received much praise. Chauncey Mabe of the Sun-Sentinel said of A Novel of Klass: Curt Leviant is the one of the greatest novelists you've never heard of. His seriocomic novels ... should place him in company with ... Joseph Heller or even Saul Bellow.
Publishers Weekly said of Diary of an Adulterous Woman: Astute character studies drive this sexy, witty, philosophically complex novel.... and of The Man Who Thought He Was Messiah: A hypnotic fable, poetic and beautifully wrought. And The New York Times Book Review said of the same book: An enchanting, magical novel, sensual and intriguing.... exquisitely written.
Leviant’s Zix Zexy Ztories stands alongside his substantial oeuvre in the vein of Bellow, Singer, Kafka – a place they’re likely to remain for a long time.
Parenting & Relationships / Religion & Spirituality / Judaism
Talking about Intimacy and Sexuality: A Guide for Orthodox Jewish Parents by Yocheved Debow (KTAV Publishing House, OU Press)
In a culture suffused with messages about sexuality antithetical to the Orthodox tradition, many parents today find it difficult to talk about these subjects with their children. Talking about Intimacy and Sexuality helps parents meet the challenge and engage in a scientifically factual, accurate, honest and helpful conversation. It gives them tools to aid the development of an independent, strong, biblically aligned voice of conscience about intimacy and sexuality in the minds and hearts of children. It is rooted in the belief that parents foster a commitment by engaging their children in thoughtful dialogue, sharing with them their values about intimacy and sexuality. The author Yocheved Debow holds a doctorate from Bar Ilan University’s School of Education. Her research focuses on sexuality and intimacy education in the Modern Orthodox community for which she received both the President’s Award and a Schupf Fellowship.
Although written from an Orthodox perspective, there is much in the volume that is relevant for all parents. Talking about Intimacy and Sexuality draws upon Debow's extensive research about intimacy and sexuality with children and teenagers in the Orthodox community and her professional experience as an educator from elementary school through post-high school.
According to Debow, the process of transmitting traditional family values can is a challenge for the Orthodox community, particularly among those who seek to combine commitment to Jewish law with membership in secular society. Tensions often emerge within families seeking to transmit traditional norms of conduct that are in conflict with contemporary norms of behavior. The tension is particularly acute in the areas of intimacy and sexuality. Parents are aware that bringing children up in the twenty-first century in a society saturated with sexuality and sexual imagery, impacts them. They receive endless messages from the images around them, and these messages are often inconsistent with traditional Jewish values. But because parents are often unsure what to say and how to counter these messages, they hesitate to provide alternative messages about sexuality.
Here's what readers can expect to find in Talking about Intimacy and Sexuality:
According to Debow, if parents choose not to talk about intimacy and sexuality, their children conclude that these are somehow bad and shameful topics and learn not to approach them with their multitude of questions in these areas. They are left alone to process the cultural messages that they are exposed to, messages that are often – by default – the only ‘education’ they receive about sexuality.
Studies show that parents consistently underestimate their children's concerns about sexuality, as well as their children's desire to talk to parents about these concerns. Even adolescents, who are stereotypically uninterested in what their parents have to say, would like their mothers and fathers to be their primary providers of information about sexuality and sexual values. It is important to start to talk to children from an early age about their bodies and about the questions they have. Doing so will enable an approach based on Jewish values to take firm root in the minds of their children before they are bombarded with messages from the media.
Debow advocates teaching children to view sexuality from a perspective of kedushah – sanctity and deep mutual respect. Parents can educate their children to reflect critically on the messages they receive from the media and society at large. If they allow children to talk about sexuality in the context of Orthodox Jewish values, they can be helped to internalize the values, traditions, and wisdom of their religion in a manner that will help them productively integrate this perspective into their religious lives.
Talking about Intimacy and Sexuality represents Debow’s effort to gather thoughts and suggestions about educating children about sexuality and intimacy, thoughts based on her research about intimacy and sexuality in the Modern Orthodox community with children and teenagers, her professional experience as an educator from Middle School through post-High school, as well as the research of others in the field.
As I attempt to express the powerful and positive emotional reactions that I had to Dr. Yocheved Debow's new book, Talking about Intimacy and Sexuality, I find myself overwhelmed by a list of adjectives. And all of the adjectives are superlatives. Necessary. Informative. Practical. Candid.… I commend the author for her masterful accomplishment, and I recommend her book to every Jewish parent who takes his or her parental responsibilities seriously. – Rabbi Tzvi Hersh Weinreb, Ph.D., Executive Vice President, Emeritus of the Orthodox Union Iyar, 5772
Talking about Intimacy and Sexuality helps parents meet the challenge to engage in a scientifically factual, accurate, and honest conversation about intimacy and sexuality. In a warm, accessible manner she distills the most important elements of Torah wisdom, current theory and research to offer parents sound advice and many practical sample conversations. It encourages parents and educators to become proactive in educating their children in these areas rather than educating by default.
Talking about Intimacy and Sexuality will serve as a helpful tool for parents in creating a healthy, Torah-based forum for discussion of sexuality and intimacy engendering respect for the wisdom of the religion in these areas. Anyone interested in imparting values and knowledge regarding intimacy and sexuality will find much useful information as well as many thought provoking suggestions.
Politics & Social Sciences / Research / Methodology
Virtual Research Methods (4 volume set) edited by Christine M. Hine (SAGE Benchmarks in Social Research Methods Series: Sage Publications Ltd.)
Virtual Research Methods, a four volume set, covers perspectives on the Internet as a social space; research models for the Internet and the skills, techniques and approaches needed to conduct research in a virtual environment; innovations in the research process and reflections on these innovations; and the ethical considerations to take into account when doing research on the Internet.
The editor of the volume, Christine Hine, is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology at the University of Surrey. Hine was President of the European Association for the Study of Science and Technology from 2004 to 2008 and has published widely in virtual research methods, with a particular focus on online ethnography; her first major work, Virtual Ethnography, was one of the pioneering works to explore the integration of the Internet with existing methodological principles in qualitative research. The four volumes contain 76 chapters, representing more than that many authors.
According to Hine in the introduction to Virtual Research Methods, the advent of the Internet has provided a major boost to the social sciences. As arguably the most significant recent development in the social world, over the few decades of its development and gradual mainstreaming the Internet has taken part in a transformation of social existence. The changes in social conditions that the Internet provides include new ways of communicating, new social formations, hierarchies, institutions and structures and new ways of realizing our identities upon the social stage. These changes are unevenly socially distributed, with access to the Internet remaining economically out of reach or either culturally or practically unavailable in many parts of the world. New forms of social exclusion and inequality result. Social researchers have found themselves confronted with new situations both within and surrounding the Internet that they feel duty bound to explore and interpret. A deluge of data has also become available for social research, as the interactions that people engage in online are so frequently open to public scrutiny and available for posterity in archives. Across the social sciences, the Internet has inspired researchers to find new ways of exploring and understanding the social world. Virtual Research Methods brings together articles that illustrate new ways of doing social research inspired by the Internet, with the goal of offering an easy-access overview of the potential of Internet research methods, a background to how and why they were developed, and resources to allow researchers to develop their own innovations as the Internet continues to expand and diversify in the future.
The first section of Volume 1 traces developments in our understanding of the Internet as social space which form an important backdrop for comprehending why virtual research methods have developed. The second section then maps out a range of research models which the Internet has enabled, as it offers up the opportunity to explore field sites that span time and space. The deployment of virtual research methods is, to some extent, a matter of developing the specific skills and techniques to capture and make sense of data in this environment. Virtual Research Methods next addresses these skills and techniques, assembling papers which demonstrate the application of familiar approaches such as interviews, surveys, social network analysis and ethnography for the online setting. It also explores various forms of network analysis, corpus-based approaches and diverse forms of data mining which have been newly developed to exploit the potential of the myriad traces of social existence available on the Internet. Virtual Research Methods explores the application of research techniques old and new to the Internet, identifying groundbreaking research projects and applications of existing techniques to the new setting.
In addition to the prospects offered by ‘found data’, social researchers on the Internet have also been inspired by the prospect of new research relationships to be forged. Social researchers need to know how to form effective research relationships online, and what the limits to representativeness of an Internet sample might be. This anthology includes a small number of background articles which reflect on the changing nature of the Internet population and the relationships which are forged there.
Virtual research methods are not reducible simply to matters of technique. Practitioners of virtual research methods (and their opponents) have found that this new technology offers a powerful reflexive opportunity. Virtual Research Methods therefore also explore a range of issues of research epistemology and ethics raised by the development of social research in virtual environments. Questions of validity, reliability and representativeness in relation to Internet data arise in online contexts as a part of the anxiety which accompanies new forms of research data, generated under unfamiliar conditions of social existence. The anthology includes contributions which explore whether there is anything recognizably novel about virtual research methods in general, or in specific research approaches such as virtual ethnography. The nature of the online research object as viewed from a range of perspectives is explored and the ethical positions open to social researchers using Internet data are analyzed.
In addition to these reflections on the nature of the outputs of virtual research methods, Virtual Research Methods also includes contributions which consider opportunities offered by online technologies for transforming the knowledge production process itself. Multimedia and hyperlinked publishing offers the possibility of extending the format of the research monograph and democratizing knowledge production by transforming the conventional single linear argument. Blogs, wikis and other Web 2.0 technologies offer the prospect of extending the research community and altering the temporal structure of the research project by exposing emerging findings to discussion and contribution from a wider array of participants and readers. Virtual Research Methods includes, therefore, a number of reflections on the potential for changing the research process itself in the face of virtual technologies.
Volume 1: Perspectives on the Internet as Social Space of Virtual Research Methods focuses on some key perspectives on the history and consequences of the Internet that are particularly relevant in rendering it available for social research, The first three selections focus on what distinguishes the Internet as a means of communication from face-to-face interaction and look at the kinds of social formation that we might expect to result. The first selection, from Sproull and Kiesler, represents a body of work on the networked organization carried out in the 1980s and 1990s. Sproull and Kiesler's article stands in for a body of research which attempted systematically to explore what the impact of various forms of computer-mediated communication on social interaction might be. However, while systematic studies of the effects of particular media have been highly influential, in practice the use of computer-mediated communication in everyday life introduces so many other influences that straightforward versions of the hypothesized effects are rarely experienced.
The second item, Baym's article on the emergence of online community, stands in a strong contrast to the reduced social context cues approach. Claims that there could be online community were controversial, and in opposition to the like of Baym's celebration of online community others suggested that whatever happened online could only ever be a pale imitation of the real thing. Wellman and Gulia provide an overview of the debate about online community, arguing that it became excessively polarized.
Subrahmanyam and Smahel's article outlines the debate about online identity in the context of a discussion of how contemporary teenagers deploy the Internet in their exploration of identity, showing that pretending to be someone else is only a small part of a diverse range of ways of selectively presenting the self online.
Tufecki explores the contrasts between users and non-users of social networking sites on a US college campus, building on theories of social grooming and Goffman's theories on self-presentation. Tufecki's article is important in its observation that we need to disaggregate the Internet. Instead of generalizing about the Internet's effects it is important to remember that there are still non-users as well as users and also that the meaning of usage varies dramatically. Tufecki raises the concern that some users have about the impact of social networking sites on their privacy. This aspect of Internet use is explored by Joinson et al, who discuss the highly differentiated Internet landscape in terms of attitudes to personal information disclosure. Joinson and colleagues report on experimental studies which explore the relationships between concerns about privacy, trust and disclosure and the various circumstances which can affect online behaviors.
Moving on from the individual as a site of identity formation and privacy concerns, many researchers have been interested in the Internet as transformative of social geographies, and as an enabler of new forms of social structure across time and space. The article included in Virtual Research Methods surveys Castells' thoughts on the emerging spatial dynamics of the network society, focusing in particular on the role of particular forms of urbanization. Castells provides a crucial insight into the structures of connection and of emergent inequality that prevail in and around the networks of instantaneous connection around the globe.
Hargittai pursues the theme of inequality in relation to digital technologies, arguing that it is of significance to scholars beyond those interested in social inequality in itself. Any commentator wishing to discuss the implications of the Internet needs, she argues, to differentiate those effects and to understand that the outcomes of Internet use are unlikely to be experienced in the same way across different population segments.
Finally, in this section, Virtual Research Methods includes Jones' overview of the development of Internet Studies as a distinct field of academic interest. Jones looks back on the history of Internet studies with particular reference to the formation of the Association of Internet Researchers in 2000. While not a formal discipline as yet, Jones argues that Internet Studies can usefully develop a sense both of its own history and its purpose. To that end, he proposes that the study of power forms a particularly significant theme in Internet studies. Subsequent sections of Virtual Research Methods demonstrate use of Internet-based research methods across a wide range of disciplines and are by no means confined to scholars who think of themselves as focused on the Internet in itself.
Volume 1: Research Sites and Research Models. The second section of Volume 1 of Virtual Research Methods moves from broad considerations of what the Internet might be, to more specific considerations of the way in which it offers sites for social research. The first three selections in this section explore alternatives that begin to disaggregate the Internet. In the first article Miller and Slater argue that studies of the Internet should not start by assuming that ‘the virtual’ exists, but should instead treat it as emergent through people positioning themselves in relation to the Internet in particular ways. Their study of the Internet in Trinidad showed that being online was experienced and appropriated in highly culturally specific ways, and the online spaces that emerged from Trinidadian usage became a significant way for people to realize an identity as Trinidadian, both in relation to their existing social networks and on a global stage. In the second article Hine explores similar themes in a discussion of the nature of the Internet as both a site in which culture is experienced and enacted, and as a cultural artifact, made meaningful within existing cultural contexts. As social researchers, then, it follows that we should expect usage of the Internet to be highly differentiated both in itself and in what it means for people's everyday lives.
Saying that the field site does not have to be confined to the online does not mean that it should never be. In the next two selections authors argue in different ways for online field sites strategically selected to allow for specific research questions to be addressed. Cavanagh explores the history of online community studies, and maps out a heritage which has both explored the dynamics of online communities as social spaces in themselves and investigated the connections and tensions between online communities and their offline counterparts. Boellstorff explores the strategic choices available to an ethnographer of online virtual worlds such as Second Life, by outlining a typology of different ways to conceptualize a field site or research object focused on their use.
A different example of a research site formulated in response to the Internet is Constable's work on long-distance relationships focused around the search for marriage partners between men in the United States and women in China and the Philippines. Burrell moves from this mobile version of ethnography to a conception of the field site itself as a network, formed through the ethnographer's strategic engagement with social activity across heterogeneous locations. Burrell has some useful advice for ethnographers embracing this idea of the fieldsite as a network created through the active decision-making of the researcher, including pointers on entry points and forms of network to look out for, and guidance on knowing when to stop.
Farnsworth and Austrin also deploy a networked approach to ethnography, focusing discussion on how one might ethnographically ‘follow’ global poker. They use Actor Network Theory's insights on the assembly of the social to discuss how one might explore global poker as a field which is not simply multi-sited but also highly unstable and constantly proliferating.
The next paper questions the necessity for a binary distinction to be drawn between networked studies on the one hand and community-focused approaches on the other. Postill suggests that it is a mistake to start out with the assumption that one will study either a network or a community, and that instead if one focuses on what one finds on the ground, a wide variety of different forms of localization of Internet practices may be found, not necessarily conforming to either model. Postill uses observations from his ethnographic work in Malaysia to stress the importance of an ethnography which is agnostic in advance about the form of field that will be encountered.
This section on the diverse research sites and research models which the Internet affords ends with a contribution focusing on websites. Pauwels proposes a hybrid media analysis of websites, through which researchers explore the content of websites and their deployment of various technical features, possibly by using different forms of semiotic and content analysis on their visual and verbal aspects. He discusses the significance of the audience: the people whose responses we are often most interested in, but whose consumption of the website is often hard to gauge through research because their engagement rarely leaves visible traces on the website itself.
Volume 2: Skills, Techniques and Approaches 1 – Modes of Ethnographic Engagement.
The second volume of Virtual Research Methods moves from broad conceptual research frameworks to a closer focus on the nitty gritty of what it takes to get research done. The first two contributions, however, are wider reviews which discuss what might be different about doing ethnography online, exploring the range of approaches. Garcia et al begin with a discussion of the new demands which online research places upon ethnographers. While many of the principles of ethnography remain intact, Garcia et al demonstrate that the ways in which they are practiced are transformed.
Murthy also provides an overview of the transformations occasioned by the shift of ethnography to a digital environment, this time from a sociological perspective. Murthy largely discusses what might be described as ‘everyday’ uses of the Internet, familiar to a wide range of participants.
Taylor shifts attention to a less widely experienced but sociologically very intriguing aspect of the Internet in the virtual worlds inhabited by online representations of bodies known as avatars. Taylor presents a discussion of some of the complexities of participatory research in online worlds. Taylor stresses the importance of becoming adept with the various technologies involved, both as an aid to efficient data gathering and as an important ethnographic experience in itself.
A different, but equally technologically immersed approach to ethnography is described by Dirksen, Huizing and Smit. Here the focus of research is a large IT organization which promoted virtual communities within the company. The research comprised a connective ethnography which combined online and offline methods. Dirksen et al explain how these different forms of data complemented one another, offering a multi-dimensional understanding of the phenomenon.
Following on from this multi-dimensional study, Feldon and Kafai also offer a combined approach to study of a virtual phenomenon, this time an avatar-based virtual world. The research combined a survey and interviews with online observations and analysis of a server log of the activity of participants, keystroke by keystroke. The combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches which this offered allowed the researchers to cope with a large volume of data and to explore experiences in relation to the meaning of avatars.
Forte casts another light on the importance of participation as an ethnographic strategy. He describes his research with a group of Caribbean aboriginal people who were interested in maintaining and promoting their distinctive cultural identity. Forte describes the ethnographic insights stemming from this active engagement with the group along with the ethical tensions occasioned by his collaboration.
A somewhat different form of technology engagement is described by Hine in an article which explores how web searching can become a way to do qualitative research into the consumption of television. Searching for online mentions of the popular television program The Antiques Roadshow reveals the show as a taken for granted component of the media landscape which viewers make use of in diverse ways in everyday contexts. The last article in this section highlights one of the most controversial aspects of online ethnography: the potential for covert observation. Brotsky and Giles focus on the ‘pro-ana’ community consisting of websites and forums exploring anorexia outside a medical framework. Their research approach contravenes many guidelines on ethical research, since it involved adopting a false persona in order to participate in forums which would be unlikely to have accepted them as an overt researcher.
Volume 2: Skills, Techniques and Approaches 2 – Research Relationships of Virtual Research Methods looks more closely at the skills needed to conduct successful research relationships online and the forms of data that result, looking at interviews and focus groups conducted in using a range of synchronous and asynchronous online media.
The first article, by Kazmer and Xie, focuses on interviews, comparing face-to-face, telephone, email and instant messaging.
Davis and colleagues, in the second article, offer a reflection on their experiences of different modes of interviewing in a study focused on men using the Internet to acquire sexual partners. While the online interviews were convenient to conduct and offered some advantages for both participants and researchers, there were some concerns about the interpretation of the resulting data, particularly revolving around the extent to which online interactions were moment-by-moment textual performances.
Meho focuses specifically on email interviews, and finds that they do offer a viable alternative to face-to-face or telephone interaction. Success can depend, however, on developing appropriate skills in the conduct of the email interview in order to build trust and develop rapport. Without these, take-up of email interviews may be low, or the quality of data questionable. It is common in interviewing, especially when the relationship is conducted online, to be concerned about the reliability of the participants' statements. James and Busher explore this issue through discussion of their use of semi-structured email interviews focused on professional identity within two higher education contexts.
Madge and O'Connor describe a study focused on users of a parenting website, in which they deployed both an online questionnaire and group interviews conducted in a synchronous online forum. Both methods were successful in exploring the perceptions of some users of the website. Seymour also compares the potential of face-to-face and online interviews, focusing on the experience of a project exploring the use of technology by people living with disabilities. In the first phase of the research face-to-face interviews were conducted. The second phase then moved to use of an online asynchronous discussion forum and also email interviews which some participants chose in preference to the forum. Couch and Liamputtong also allied their methods to the needs and preferences of their participants, albeit in a rather different context, in their study of people taking part in online dating.
In contrast, some research projects seek interaction between participants in order to lessen the focus on questions posed by researchers. Tates et al took this approach in their study of the perceptions of users of pediatric cancer care services. Asynchronous online focus groups allowed participants to put forward their views, although the researchers noted that the child participants tended to direct their comments towards the researchers and only the older groups developed significant interactions with one another. Fox et al carried out synchronous online focus groups with young people experiencing chronic skin conditions, and found that this was an effective way to engage research participants.
Stewart and Williams discuss experiences of both asynchronous and synchronous online focus groups, including online virtual environments where participants are represented by avatars, comparing these approaches with the conventional face-to-face focus group and discussing novel issues of ethics, representation and authenticity which arise. Horvath et al shift the emphasis away from focus groups with a study which recruited participants to complete web-based diaries, in the format of a survey completed on a daily basis about that day's activities.
One final example is provided by the last article in this section, in which Fielding describes the use of Access Grid videoconferencing as a means to conduct interviews. Trial interviews conducted with students and with criminal court judges suggest that this may be an effective medium for research.
Volume 3: Skills, Techniques and Approaches 3 – Corpus-based Approaches to Found Data. The first 2 volumes of Virtual Research Methods focus on research in which data is actively generated through relationships with participants, either through participant observation or by conducting interviews and focus groups. There are, however, a wide array of possibilities for social research on the Internet focused on the ‘found data’ that results from traces of naturally occurring online interactions. It also, however, raises considerable questions relating to the representativeness of online traces in relation to social life more broadly, and the ethics of using ‘found data’ without the consent of those concerned. The articles in this section showcase a variety of analytic techniques and exploring the practical and ethical consequences.
Kopacz and Lee Lawton deploy a recognizable social research technique in their content analysis of YouTube video portrayals of Native Americans. The searchability of the YouTube corpus allowed the researchers to select a data sample according to keyword, but potentially biased their data sample in that it restricted them to videos tagged according to predictable keywords. Textual data produced in Internet forums can be subjected to similar approaches. Harvey et al focus on the analysis of messages sent by teenagers to a health website, using techniques from corpus linguistics. They use a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques.
Seale et al compare the analysis of online discussion data and interview data and find that the immediacy and ease of direct observation offered by data from forums is offset by a lack of richness and contextual detail. Similarly, as Hookway describes, blogs can provide a compelling insight into the everyday lives of their writers, offering a rich resource for social researchers looking for naturalistic data.
The next group of articles focuses on the web site as an object of study. Weare and Lin begin with a discussion of the adaptations needed when techniques of content analysis are transferred to the web site. Weare and Lin survey the literature discussing approaches to sampling and coding the web which focus particularly on this concern about applying content analysis to provide research insights with both reliability and validity.
From a different research perspective, of critical discourse analysis, Mautner advocates the web as a source of data to enable exploration of linguistic practice. Alongside this potential Mautner also outlines the considerable challenges that the web poses for discourse analysts in its sheer size and diversity, its dynamics and its ephemerality, all of which provide problems for the discourse analyst in defining a sample and interpreting it appropriately. The final article, by Brügger, takes a step back to explore the constitution of the web as a research object. Brügger asks how we should bound the website temporally and spatially for study, focusing particularly on the notion of website history as a necessary, but challenging component of documenting contemporary social practice.
Volume 3: Skills, Techniques and Approaches 4 – Network Analysis. Part of the appeal of the Internet for social researchers is that data, previously often a scarce resource acquired laboriously and in the face of numerous practical and ethical challenges, becomes abundantly available. One branch of social research that has particularly enjoyed a boost in the face of the Internet's growth is the set of quantitative techniques focused on understanding of social networks.
The first article discusses the techniques of webometrics pioneered by Thelwall. Bibliometrics was established to explore patterns and networks of connection among documents, most often latterly in evaluation of scientific impact through analyzing networks of citation. Thelwall describes the emergence of webometrics as an array of techniques for exploring patterns of connection and influence between websites, building on that heritage established by bibliometrics. The remaining articles in this section of Virtual Research Methods deploy a variety of quantitative techniques to explore patterns in various aspects of the Internet, allowing researchers to address questions of social significance in novel ways. Baym and Ledbetter conducted an in-depth survey with users of a music-based social networking site, exploring connections between relationship strengths and musical taste.
In contrast to survey-based approaches, other social network analyses make use of data that already exists on the Internet and use this to explore patterns. Hsu and Park use data from hyperlinking patterns to explore connections in the South Korean political domain, tracking the changing patterns with the shift from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0. Rogers and Marres use hyperlinking patterns to explore the emergence of debates on the web, looking at the extent to which the density of hyperlinks between sites acts as a proxy for ideological sympathies in relation to climate change. Rogers and Manes suggest that exploring patterns of hyperlinking enables emerging debates to be mapped. Ackland and O'Neil build on this work to explore patterns emerging in online environmental activism, combining hyperlink analysis with the study of ‘frame networks’ involving shared concepts casting a particular light on an issue. Such an approach allows a detailed analysis of what characterizes online social movements.
Volume 3: Skills, Techniques and Approaches 5 – Experiments, Surveys and Sampling. One of the most significant advantages of the Internet as a sampling tool is the ability to reach specific populations across wide geographic distance, thus enabling researchers to assemble large samples sharing desired characteristics. Miner et al discuss their research with transgender populations via the Internet, recruiting a population for online survey and interviews via websites. Reed et al compared the use of websites for recruitment with face-to-face recruitment to a study of experiences of living with metastatic breast cancer. They found that the two methods provided samples differing both demographically and in terms of the experiences being surveyed.
The next two articles turn to issues of questionnaire design. Ganassali identifies a set of characteristics according to which web-based surveys might vary, then conducts a systematic experiment to test out how these characteristics affect response. Vicente and Reis focus on non-response bias in particular, and survey a range of recent literature to provide pointers on how questionnaires can be designed to encourage high response rates. Shih and Fan compare response rates between web and mail surveys, by means of a meta-analysis of recent studies.
The last two articles in this section turn from surveys to experiments, and explore the potential of the Internet as a means to recruit participants to experimental studies. In the first article Reips reflects on the experiences of conducting experimental psychology on the web, describing the history of web experiments at the Web Experimental Psychology Laboratory. In the next article Reips and Krantz explore in more depth the comparison between web-based experiments and those taking place in a more conventional laboratory setting.
Volume 4: Innovations in the Research Process. This section of Virtual Research Methods focuses on some of the possibilities for using the Internet to transform the process of research and also explores some of the constraints which discourage more widespread uptake. Web 2.0, with its focus on ease of self-publishing and the emergence of bottom-up networks of quality control through commenting, tagging and reviewing, offers some exciting possibilities for research use. Di Gregorio describes the possibility of using the facilities of web 2.0 for carrying out qualitative analysis, as an alternative to use of dedicated computer-aided qualitative data analysis software, the possibility of working collaboratively online, through tagging, annotating and categorizing their data.
Wakeford and Cohen describe the possible uses of blogs in research, focusing particularly on the potential for making fieldnotes public through a blog. Halavais reviews blogging as a mode of scholarly reporting, exploring the extent to which blogs open up a new space for scholarly exchange which proceeds under different conditions to the pages of a journal or the sessions of a conference. As Ponte and Simon describe, there is certainly a willingness to explore new models of scholarship, using web 2.0 tools for alternative systems of peer review and reputation assessments. Their survey found widespread approval for use of the web in making outcomes of research freely accessible, although considerable inertia in the current publishing system makes this difficult to achieve.
Across the sciences and humanities there has been considerable discussion of the possibility of new forms e-research to emerge, based upon use of advanced computing facilities to enable large scale research. In the final article in this section Schroeder reviews the potential for new forms of transdisciplinary, globalized research to emerge in the face of such technological developments.
Volume 4 of Virtual Research Methods: Ethical Considerations. Having explored the many exciting possibilities for methodological development offered up by the Internet, it is important to note that the Internet is not after all simply to be treated as the researchers' playground. This section includes contributions which cover a range of disciplinary perspectives on the question of ethical conduct in Internet research and explore some diverse forms of Internet data.
There are diverse, and often conflicting perspectives on whether people should be told that the social interactions they conduct on the Internet might be used for research purposes. Eysenbach and Till review ethical issues arising from use of online discussion forums to conduct health research. Bassett and O'Riordan stress that research ethics do not always dictate that participant anonymity should be preserved, since in some cases participants will expect to be given credit as authors of their own words. Wilkinson and Thelwall explore the ethical dimensions of using data gathered from public Internet sites such as discussion forums and blogs and suggest that, in a reversal of social scientific convention it may be preferable in many cases not to ask permission rather than to intrude upon the authors of texts by asking them to participate. Zimmer argues that researchers need to be extremely careful in protecting confidentiality, and describes a case where release of a large dataset gathered from a social networking site inadvertently revealed more personal information than researchers intended or participants had consented to.
The emergent nature of Internet research ethics is stressed again by Hudson and Bruckman, who describe a study aimed at finding out how participants in chat rooms would respond to invitations to participate in research. Hudson and Bruckman suggest that waivers of the need for informed consent might be negotiable on the basis of the low risk of harm presented by research in chat rooms, but that this would need to be evaluated by ethical review bodies on a case-by-case basis. Markham stresses the need for reflexivity in questions of ethics, arguing that researchers should see the development of ethical practice as an iterative process, formulating designs and adapting practice to the situations that are encountered in a sensitive fashion.
Volume 4: Reflections on Innovation. In this final section of Virtual Research Methods, the relationship of virtual research methods to conventional social research approaches is explored. According to Hine, an air of innovation and anxiety has tended to surround the question of Internet research methods, as it has the Internet itself. There is much that is still recognizable in the virtual research methods of today from their precursors before the Internet was thought of, as Jankowski and van Seim describe, incremental.
Beer and Burrows explore the potential for a deep engagement between sociology and web 2.0 which would take the form, they suggest, of sociology and, of and in web 2.0. Denissen et al reflect on similar concerns from the perspective of developmental psychology, noting on the one hand the development of new methods which the Internet has enabled, and on the other hand the changed conditions of psychosocial interaction which researchers have found themselves obligated to keep up with. Livingstone reviews the challenge posed by the Internet for research into audiences, where the notion of the audience has traditionally been a concept associated with mass broadcast media.
Robinson and Schulz suggest that ethnographic practice specifically has been transforming in the face of the new conditions of social existence offered by developments in communications technologies. Farrell and Petersen suggest that mainstream sociologists have been slow to accept virtual research methods as legitimate modes of research and, indeed, fully to grasp the significance of the Internet within contemporary society. Beaulieu discusses the extent to which ethnographies of the Internet work with established intellectual traditions, finding both innovation and anxiety in discussions about the grounds for producing reliable knowledge about Internet culture. Survey research too has endured times of innovation and anxiety, as Dillman describes in his review of the Internet as a challenge to established survey methods which brought many difficulties of its own.
As Rail describes, scholars come to virtual research through diverse routes, and this diversity of paths is reflected in varied conceptions of what the Internet is and what it means for scholarly inquiry so far. This section concludes with two articles looking towards innovation and the future of research methods. Rogers explores the constraints of assuming that methods for understanding the Internet must be adaptations of existing methods, and proposes a more radical solution based on new methods designed especially for data which is ‘natively digital’. Busher and Urry describe the prospects of mobile methods, adapted to the needs of understanding a society which is connected in ever more complex ways and providing for forms of research object not anticipated by traditional location-based research methods.
Virtual Research Methods offers an easy-access overview of the potential of Internet research methods, a background to how and why they were developed, and resources to allow researchers to develop their own innovations as the Internet continues to expand and diversify in the future. There is a shortage of authoritative works which offer comprehensive coverage of the virtual research methods available to social researchers. In particular, it is rare for a single work to have the space to survey the full range of virtual research methods and their antecedents, and to explore the methodological and epistemological ramifications of their development. While not comprehensive, the four volume set helps to fill that gap.
The collection incorporates both individual cutting-edge techniques and broader debates about methodological innovation. Looking beyond specific techniques towards method the collection helps prepare readers to tackle research challenges and to formulate methodological solutions. Hine increases the exposure of some useful but less accessible resources while presenting a collection that has an intellectual coherence in itself. She strikes a balance between thematic overviews which provide general background and direction in a field, and exemplars in which researchers demonstrate how a particular methodological approach is developed for a specific research question.
This collection will be useful for researchers developing their own innovative approaches, and the examples will be useful in demonstrating the detailed justifications which must support any new approach if it is to be accepted as offering rigorous and reliable insights. The set of volumes is also relevant to mainstream social science researchers who are interested in Internet data collection and analysis without having a specific interest in understanding the Internet in itself.
Virtual Research Methods is part of the SAGE Benchmarks in Social Research Methods series. Published since 2001 and now exceeding 60 four-volume sets, this series is the definitive reference collection on methods available today. From ethnography to measurement, the series continues to map the history of thought on the vast range of quantitative and qualitative methods in the social sciences. Edited by leaders in their fields, each set presents a careful selection of the key historical and contemporary works.
Politics & Social Sciences / Women’s Studies / Appalachian Studies / Business & Investing / Economics / Engineering / Nature & Ecology / Environmental Studies
Standing Our Ground: Women, Environmental Justice, and the Fight to End Mountaintop Removal by Joyce M. Barry (Race, Ethnicity and Gender in Appalachia Series: Ohio University Press)
Standing Our Ground examines women’s
efforts to end mountaintop removal coal mining in West Virginia.
Mountaintop removal coal mining, which involves demolishing the tops
of hills and mountains to provide access to coal seams, is one of
the most significant environmental threats in Appalachia, where it
is most commonly practiced.
The Appalachian women featured in the book have firsthand experience with the negative impacts of Big Coal in West Virginia. Through their work in organizations such as the Coal River Mountain Watch and the Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition, they fight to save their mountain communities by promoting the development of alternative energy resources. Joyce M. Barry’s original work reveals how women’s tireless organizing efforts have made mountaintop removal a global political and environmental issue and laid the groundwork for a robust environmental justice movement in central Appalachia. Barry is a visiting assistant professor of women’s studies at Hamilton College.
Chapter 1 of Standing Our Ground examines the material conditions of West Virginia women in this age of mountaintop removal (MTR) coal mining, guided by the assumption that in searching for solutions to the political, economic, and environmental problems associated with MTR and Big Coal in the state, the perspectives of poor and working-class women must be considered. In discussing the material conditions of women in West Virginia, this chapter examines how gender ideologies have been shaped by the coal industry and how women's participation in the anti-MTR movement simultaneously embraces and defies traditional gendered prescriptions.
Chapter 2 places the anti-MTR movement and women's participation, within the context of environmental justice (EJ) activism in the United States. The EJ framework provides a productive way to assess the anti-MTR movement because of its historic focus on the connections between adverse environments and disenfranchised human populations. Environmental justice links social justice – economic, political, and cultural – with the natural world, exposing the root causes of both environmental problems and social inequity. This chapter reviews EJ's historic focus on race and class, but, more important, centralizes gender in this analysis of the movement to end MTR and Big Coal's influence in West Virginia. EJ has done a tremendous job of emphasizing the importance of class, social justice, and vulnerable communities' connections to the environment insufficiently assesses the role of gender in EJ thought and practice.
Chapter 3 situates West Virginia women's environmental justice activism in the anti-MTR movement within the history and culture of grassroots protest in Appalachia. Historically, women in the region have joined coal industry reform efforts such as labor strikes and unionization campaigns. Women were also active in anti-strip-mining activism of the 1960s and 1970s. Women in the anti-MTR movement, unlike previous instantiations of women's activism, envision a life without coal in central Appalachia, focusing their efforts on creating economically and environmentally sustainable communities. In doing so, they promote a vision of West Virginia that sees the mountains as inextricably tied to the area's culture and history. They highlight this connection, while supporters of Big Coal argue that coal, and not mountains, is the defining marker of West Virginia's cultural history.
Chapter 4 of Standing Our Ground examines racial constructions inherent in the popular anti-MTR slogan "Save the Endangered Hillbilly," positioning this call within white studies scholarship and as a directive to mainstream environmentalism, which has historically separated humans from the nonhuman environment. The culturally derogative term ‘hillbilly’ has a long history in this country, and is a descriptor used both racially and in terms of class in American society. Activists in the anti-MTR movement reclaim this pejorative term and use it to foster a sense of pride in coalfield residents. In their embrace of ‘hillbilly’ they mark themselves by race and class in their efforts to preserve the culture and environment of West Virginia.
Finally, chapter 5 situates mountaintop removal coal mining, and the movement to end it, within the global context of neoliberal economic transformations, global energy, climate change, and environmental justice protest. Appalachian activists realize that the adverse impact of MTR does not remain in the isolated mountainous communities where coal is extracted. Coal provides half of this country's electricity, and is the primary source for electricity generation in the world, but emits the largest amount of CO2 into the earth's atmosphere, contributing to climate change. With this knowledge, grassroots Appalachian activists are concerned with making global environmental justice connections in their efforts to end MTR. These activists work with the realization that while they are all rooted locally, they are socially and environmentally connected to the world at large.
Standing Our Ground places the anti-mountaintop removal struggle squarely as a global issue with human and environmental costs. Barry successfully illustrates how local struggles in central Appalachia are indicative of a larger global movement for environmental justice. – Shirley Stewart Burns, author of Bringing Down the Mountains: The Impact of Mountaintop Removal on Southern West Virginia Communities
What a magnificent book! The author skillfully weaves theoretical discussions into a fast-paced narrative. Standing Our Ground is well written, well researched, and on solid theoretical ground. The book offers a unique lens: coal is a highly masculinized world, and Barry opens up a view of women’s roles and activism inside this world, which is often closed to outsiders. – Joni Seager, author of Gender, Poverty, and the Environment
Barry exposes the coal industry's harsh effects on working-class women in Appalachia, revealing the symbiosis between gender oppression and environmental destruction. No passive victims, the women she profiles have become leading advocates for alternative energy. – Ms. Magazine
Engaging and original, well written and well researched, Standing Our Ground forcefully presents the case and tells the story of the environmental justice movement in central Appalachia.
Professional & Technical / Medicine / Clinical / Internal / Radiology / Neurology / Reference
Imaging of the Brain, 1st edition edited by Thomas P. Naidich MD, Mauricio Castillo MD, Soonmee Cha MD and James G. Smirniotopoulos MD (Expert Radiology Series: Elsevier Saunders)
Imaging of the Brain provides the advanced expertise clinicians need to overcome the toughest diagnostic challenges in neuroradiology. Combining the visual guidance of an atlas with the comprehensive, in-depth coverage of a definitive reference, this new work in the Expert Radiology series covers every aspect of brain imaging, equipping clinicians to make optimal use of the latest diagnostic modalities.
With Imaging of the Brain clinicians are able to:
Editors are Thomas P. Naidich, MD, Professor of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Irving and Dorothy Regenstreif Research Professor of Neuroscience (Neuroimaging), Director of Neuroradiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York; Mauricio Castillo, MD, Professor of Radiology, Chief and Program Director, Neuroradiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill; Soonmee Cha, MD, Professor of Radiology and Neurological Surgery, Program Director, Diagnostic Radiology Residency, Attending Neuroradiologist, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco; and James G. Smirniotopoulos, MD, Chief Editor, MedPixa, Professor of Radiology, Neurology, and Biomedical Informatics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Program Leader, Diagnostics and Imaging, Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Bethesda. The book has 77 contributors, all teachers, internationally recognized for their excellence in science and education.
Imaging of the Brain attempts the dual task of providing a firm foundation for neuroimaging diagnosis and then illustrating the promise of things to come. It teaches the basics and then asks, "What's next?" and "Why not more?" The editors and authors have selected material and tailored discussions to teach the ‘core knowledge’ that is the foundation for future growth. In this endeavor, they balance brevity with thoroughness, for efficient learning.
The initial sections Imaging of the Brain present concisely the techniques used for neuroimaging and systems for analyzing the densities and signal intensities of the images made. Subsequent sections address in detail the anatomic bases for the images with extensive correlations to fresh and formalin-fixed human brain tissue. In sequence, serial sections then review the pathology and imaging of cerebrovascular disease, trauma, tumors and cysts, infection and inflammation, aging and degeneration, toxic and metabolic diseases, hydrocephalus, and epilepsy. In each section, data are presented in parallel format for completeness and ease of review. Where appropriate, illustrative cases and sample reports conclude each chapter.
The authors of Imaging of the Brain specifically include clinical and pathologic data for each entity so readers may see how the imaging features explain the presentation and evolution of the clinical cases. With this understanding, they may discuss cases with clinical colleagues more usefully and provide more informed care to their patients.
Chapters in Imaging of the Brain and their authors include:
SECTION ONE: TECHNIQUES FOR IMAGING
SECTION TWO: IMAGE AND PATTERN ANALYSIS
SECTION THREE: SCALP, SKULL, AND MENINGES
SECTION FOUR: NORMAL BRAIN ANATOMY
· Supratentorial Brain
· Infratentorial Brain
SECTION SIX: CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA
SECTION SEVEN: CYSTS AND TUMORS
SECTION EIGHT: THE PHAKOMATOSES
SECTION NINE: INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION
SECTION TEN: AGING AND DEGENERATION
SECTION ELEVEN: TOXIC AND METABOLIC CONDITIONS
SECTION TWELVE: HYDROCEPHALUS
SECTION THIRTEEN: EPILEPSY
With Imaging of the Brain clinicians can apply the advanced expertise of internationally recognized authors in neuroradiology. This significant new work provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage, including 2,800 digital-quality images. Since the book illustrates how neuroradiology aids patient care and contributes to scientific endeavor in all sister specialties, it is appropriate for all trainees and practitioners in the allied neurosciences – radiologists and neuroradiologists, neurologists and neurosurgeons, psychiatrists and neuroscientists.
Professional & Technical / Medicine / Clinical / Internal / Dermatology / Reference
Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy: Expert Consult – Online and Print, 3rd edition edited by Stephen E. Wolverton MD (Elsevier Saunders)
Clinicians can safely and effectively treat a full range of skin disorders with Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy, 3rd Edition. This trusted dermatology reference provides concise, complete, up-to-date guidance on today's full spectrum of topical, intralesional, and systemic drugs. Steven E. Wolverton and a team of leading international experts explain what drugs to use, when to use them, and what to watch out for.
With Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy clinicians are able to:
The editor is Stephen E. Wolverton MD, Theodore Arlook Professor of Clinical Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, Indiana University School of Medicine; Chief of Dermatology, Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis. The book has 132 contributors. A total of 12 new senior authors contribute new chapters, with six new senior authors updating earlier chapters.
PART I INTRODUCTION
PART II IMPORTANT DRUG REGULATORY ISSUES
PART III SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES
PART IV SYSTEMIC IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTIPROLIFERATIVE DRUGS
PART V DRUGS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH ULTRAVIOLET OR VISIBLE LIGHT
PART VI BIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS
PART VII MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMIC DRUGS
PART VIII TOPICAL DRUGS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES
PART IX TOPICAL IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTIPROLIFERATIVE DRUGS
PART X MISCELLANEOUS TOPICAL DRUGS
PART XI INJECTABLE AND MUCOSAL ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION
Counting the original book, Systemic Drugs for Skin Diseases, published in 1991, the contents have grown from 17 chapters to now contain 70 chapters in this third edition of Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy. While continuing to focus on editorial improvements to assist clinicians/learners of dermatologic pharmacology, the following chapters are either totally new topics or are derived from earlier chapters divided to expand topic coverage and emphasis:
Chapter 4 Adherence to drug therapy
Chapter 7 Drugs taken off the market: important lessons learned
Chapter 11 Systemic antiparasitic agents
Chapter 15 Mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolic acid
Chapter 26 Interleukin 12/23 inhibitors
Chapter 27 Rituximab and future biologic therapies
Chapter 33 Systemic anticancer agents: dermatologic indications and adverse events
Chapter 39 Topical antiparasitic agents
Chapter 49 Chemical peels
Chapter 50 Products for the care of chronic wounds
Chapter 53 Irritants and allergens: when to suspect topical therapeutic agents
Chapter 57 Injectable dermal and subcutaneous fillers
Chapter 63 Neurologic adverse effects from dermatologic drugs
Biologic agents in dermatologic therapeutics are addressed in new chapters 26 and 27 above, along with Appendix I, continue to expand emphasis on this rapidly evolving and exciting `new' area of dermatologic pharmacology.
Chapters related to dermatologic surgery/procedural dermatology include Chapter 49 (Chemical Peels) and Chapter 57 (Injectable Dermal and Subcutaneous Fillers) are added to expand emphasis on the growing procedural aspects of our field. The addition of Chapter 50 on Products for the Care of Chronic Wounds also supplements earlier chapters on Local Anesthetics and Botulinum Toxin for this growing area of dermatology.
Just under 800 questions located at the beginning of each chapter guide readers towards specific text locations for answers to challenging areas of central importance to the field.
Using electronic features clinicians can:
Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy is a trusted dermatology reference providing concise, complete, up-to-date guidance on today's full spectrum of topical, intralesional, and systemic drugs. The book provides practical, and relevant information in just under 800 pages of text. The continued emphasis on using numerous tables and boxes, coupled with formatting with multiple headings and subheadings, are all of value in this priority for busy clinicians.
Professional & Technical / Medicine / Clinical / Internal / Head & Neck Surgery
Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands: Expert Consult Premium Edition – Enhanced Online Features and Print, 2nd edition edited by Gregory W. Randolph MD FACS (Elsevier Saunders)
Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands is a comprehensive text encompassing the most up-to-date, state-of-the-art knowledge in thyroid and parathyroid surgery, providing the detailed guidance clinicians need to produce the best results. International authorship incorporates new research and directions in the specialty, with chapters written by leading otolaryngologists, general surgeons, pathologists, and endocrinologists.
With Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, clinicians are able to:
The editor is Gregory W. Randolph, MD, FACS, Director, General, Thyroid, and Parathyroid Surgical Divisions, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Member, Division of Surgical Oncology, Endocrine Surgical Service, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Associate Professor, Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston. The book is illustrated by Robert Galla and has 149 contributors.
Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands is a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art knowledge of endocrine pathophysiology, surgical anatomy and techniques, preoperative and postoperative evaluation, and the latest technological advances relating to the thyroid and parathyroid glands, representing a substantial update and expansion of the first edition.
Thyroid and parathyroid surgery is seen in the context of a broad head and neck surgical perspective, and therefore chapters on associated neurolaryngology, anatomy of the lateral neck, and airway considerations are included. Throughout, emphasis is given to thorough preoperative workup and informed intraoperative decision making. Recent advances within the field, including preoperative localization, genetic analysis, recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring, intraoperative parathyroid hormone analysis, recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone, and minimally invasive approaches, are thoroughly reviewed. Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands presents controversies throughout, such as extent of nodal surgery for thyroid cancer or conservative shave procedures for invasive thyroid cancer and also provides clear-cut summary recommendations.
Each contributor, drawn from the best in the world in the fields of endocrine, head and neck, and thoracic surgery, as well as endocrinology, radiology, and pathology, was selected because of his or her clinical activity and research contributions in the medical literature within the chapter topic area. These contributors provide an overarching unique orientation to their respective topics that goes beyond the individual disparate facts.
In addition, the book now is associated with a video library, which highlights numerous complex surgical maneuvers and procedures by leaders in the field.
Chapters in Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands and their authors include:
SECTION 1 Introduction
SECTION 2 Benign Thyroid Disease
SECTION 3 Preoperative Evaluation
SECTION 4 Thyroid Neoplasia
SECTION 5 Thyroid and Neck Surgery
SECTION 6 Postoperative Considerations
SECTION 7 Postoperative Management
SECTION 8 Parathyroid Surgery
… Once again, Dr. Randolph has achieved his goal of producing a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art knowledge in endocrine pathophysiology, surgical anatomy, techniques, preoperative and postoperative care, and the very latest technological advances provided by the very best in their areas of expertise. Although this is a second edition, considering updates, new authors, new chapters, and editing, it can almost be considered a new text on its own merits. It is a book that most endocrinologists, pathologists, radiologists, and all surgeons interested in the thyroid and parathyroid glands will want to have readily available as an authoritative reference. Dr. Randolph has shown that there is always room for improvement, even when the original was very good. – Norman W. Thompson, MD, Professor of Surgery Emeritus University of Michigan Ann Arbor,
In this new second edition of the classic textbook Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Dr. Gregory W. Randolph has put forth an impressive effort to build on and improve his first edition…. I believe the exhaustive coverage of these topics, provided by authors who cross multiple specialties, including otolaryngology, general surgery, and thoracic surgery, provides the most comprehensive text ever to address surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The book is a tribute to Dr. Randolph and his co-authors and will be a valuable addition to the library of anyone who practices endocrine surgery. – Keith D. Lillemoe, MD, W. Gerald Austen Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Surgeon-in-Chief and Chief of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston
… Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands provides a thorough treatment of benign and neoplastic disease of thyroid and parathyroid glands, surgical management, its complications, and postoperative medical considerations. The text and outstanding illustrations provide a comprehensive treatise on best practice and surgical techniques.
This text, as was the first edition, is clearly destined to be the authoritative source for disorders of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. – Joseph B. Nadol, JR., MD, Walter Augustus LeCompte Professor and Chairman, Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School, Chief of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts
Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands is a comprehensive surgical text blended with a surgical atlas. The operative realism of Galla's handsome images is impressive and represents one of the real strengths of the text.
The volume presents the diagnosis and management of benign and malignant disease of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. With it clinicians can effectively diagnose benign and malignant thyroid and parathyroid diseases, implement the latest cutting-edge techniques and achieve optimal patient outcomes. Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands is appropriate for surgeons and endocrinologists, as well as radiologists and pathologists with an interest in thyroid and parathyroid disease – the book will be a resource to both the surgeon in training and the experienced surgeon.
Professional & Technical / Medicine / Clinical / Internal / Orthopaedic Surgery
Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics: 4-Volume Set (Expert Consult Premium Edition – Enhanced Online Features and Print), 12th edition edited by S. Terry Canale MD and James H. Beaty MD (Elsevier Mosby)
Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics continues to define the specialty, guiding clinicians through when and how to perform every state-of-the-art procedure. With hundreds of new procedures, over 7,000 new illustrations, a vastly expanded video collection, and new evidence-based criteria throughout, it takes excellence to a new level.
With Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 12th edition, clinicians are able to:
Editors are S. Terry Canale, MD, Harold B. Boyd Professor and Chair, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Tennessee – Campbell Clinic, Memphis and James H. Beaty, MD, Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Tennessee – Campbell Clinic, Chief of Staff, Campbell Clinic. The book has 40 contributors, authorities from the world-renowned Campbell Clinic.
As with every edition of Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, the editors say they have been amazed by the multitude of new techniques, equipment, and information generated by their orthopaedic colleagues worldwide. The emphasis on less-invasive surgical techniques for everything from hallux valgus correction to spine surgery to total joint arthroplasty has produced a variety of new approaches and new devices. The use of arthroscopy and endoscopy continues to expand its boundaries. The editors include the latest orthopaedic procedures, while retaining many of the classic techniques that remain the ‘gold standards.’
Some of the changes in this 12th edition of Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics that make it easier to use include the complete redrawing of the thousands of illustrations, the combining of some chapters and rearrangement of others to achieve a more logical flow of information, the addition of several new chapters, and the placement of references published before 2000 on the website only. Full access to the text and to an increased number of surgical videos is available on the website, which is included with the text.
Chapters of Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics and their authors include:
PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES
PART II RECONSTRUCTIVE PROCEDURES OF THE HIP IN ADULTS
PART III RECONSTRUCTIVE PROCEDURES OF THE KNEE IN ADULTS
PART IV RECONSTRUCTIVE PROCEDURES OF THE ANKLE IN ADULTS
PART V RECONSTRUCTIVE PROCEDURES OF THE SHOULDER AND ELBOW IN ADULTS
PART VI AMPUTATIONS
PART VII INFECTIONS
PART VIII TUMORS
PART IX CONGENITAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
PART X NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS IN CHILDREN
PART XI FRACTURES AND DISLOCATIONS IN CHILDREN
PART XII THE SPINE
PART XIII SPORTS MEDICINE
PART XIV ARTHROSCOPY
PART XV FRACTURES AND DISLOCATIONS IN ADULTS
PART XVI PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURIES
PART XVII MICROSURGERY
PART XVIII THE HAND
PART XIX THE FOOT AND ANKLE
Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 12th edition is the definitive authority in hip surgery. It is a comprehensive, up-to-date resource guiding clinicians through every state-of-the-art procedure. The combination of traditional and electronic formats makes this edition easily accessible and useable in any situation, making it easy for orthopaedists to ensure the highest quality of patient care.
Professional & Technical / Medicine / Clinical / Internal / Surgery / Reference
Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery: Expert Consult – Online and Print (2-Volume Set), 4th edition edited by Nicholas T. Kouchoukos MD, Eugene H. Blackstone MD, Frank L. Hanley MD and James K. Kirklin MD (Elsevier Saunders)
Now in its 4th edition, Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery remains clinicians’ indispensable source for definitive, state-of-the-art answers on every aspect of adult and pediatric cardiac surgery. This dynamic medical reference systematically covers the range of new and classic surgical procedures – including the latest alternate and minimally invasive surgical techniques – and presents the up-to-date clinical evidence clinicians need to make effective management decisions.
With Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery, clinicians are able to:
Authors are Nicholas T. Kouchoukos, MD, Attending Cardiothoracic Surgeon, Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Missouri Baptist Medical Center, St. Louis; Eugene H. Blackstone, MD, Head, Clinical Investigations, Heart and Vascular Institute, Staff, Departments of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery and Quantitative Health Sciences, Professor of Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland Clinic, Professor of Surgery, University of Toronto; Frank L. Hanley, MD, Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University, Executive Director, Pediatric Heart Center, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford; James K. Kirklin, MD, Professor and Director, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Two additional contributors are Colleen Koch, MD, MS, Vice Chair of Research and Education, Department of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia, Cardiothoracic Anesthesia, Cleveland Clinic and Chandra Ramamoorthy, MBBS, FRCA, Professor of Anesthesiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Director, Division of Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Palo Alto.
All chapters present in the third edition have been revised. They have been rearranged so that every chapter relating to surgical treatment of congenital heart disease (except for Chapter 29, "Congenital Heart Disease in the Adult") has been placed in Volume 2. Each chapter was rewritten with input from at least two of the four authors. Chapter 4 ("Anesthesia for Cardiovascular Surgery") was revised by Drs. Colleen G. Koch and Chandra Ramamoorthy. The content, and in some instances the titles, of several chapters have been altered to reflect current knowledge and practice. As an example, the chapter "Heart Failure" in the third edition has been expanded into three chapters in the fourth edition: "Cardiomyopathy," "Cardiac Transplantation," and "Mechanical Circulatory Support." New illustrations and new echocardiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance images have been added to reflect important advances in the diagnosis and management of congenital and acquired diseases of the heart and great vessels.
As in the previous editions of Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery, Part I of Volume 1 discusses basic concepts of cardiac surgery: anatomy, support techniques, myocardial management, anesthesia, postoperative care, and methodology for generating new knowledge from previous experience. These core chapters are applicable to the broad audience of medical professionals who care for patients with cardiac disease. The remaining chapters of Volume 1 (Parts II to V) discuss specific acquired diseases of the heart and great vessels, and congenital heart disease in adults. This edition has retained, in these later sections and in all of the chapters in Volume 2, presentation of "Indications for Operation" at the end of each chapter, because the indications are the derivatives of comparison of various outcomes (results) of alternative forms of treatments, including no treatment (natural history).
The fourth edition of Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery is written at a time of great change for the specialty of cardiac surgery. Percutaneous catheter-based interventions are being increasingly used to treat patients with coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease, aortic valve stenosis, mitral valve regurgitation, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, diseases of the thoracic aorta, and congenital cardiac lesions such as patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, atrial and ventricular septal defects, and pulmonary valvar stenosis and regurgitation. Less invasive techniques are rapidly being incorporated into cardiac surgical practice for many conditions that continue to require open surgical repair.
Chapters in Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery include:
Part I General Considerations
Part II Ischemic Heart Disease
Part III Acquired Valvar Heart Disease
Part IV Other Cardiac Conditions
Part V Diseases of the Thoracic Arteries and Veins
Part VI Congenital Heart Disease in the Adult
Part VII Congenital Heart Disease
Clinicians can master cardiac surgery with the gold standard for cardiac surgery – Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery, 4th edition – the most definitive and clinically comprehensive resource on cardiologic procedures including the latest alternate and minimally invasive surgical procedures. This multi-volume set will be of value to cardiac surgeons who care for patients with congenital and acquired heart disease and with disorders of major blood vessels in the chest, as well as to cardiologists and interventional cardiologists who treat children and adults with these conditions, anesthesiologists, intensivists, pulmonologists, imaging specialists, cardiovascular nurses, and trainees in all of these disciplines.
Professional & Technical / Medicine / Clinical / Surgery / Ophthalmology
Complications in Ocular Surgery: A Guide to Managing the Most Common Challenges edited by Amar Agarwal MS FRCS FRCOphth, with associate editor Soosan Jacob (Slack Incorporated)
Ophthalmology, being a field that is advancing by leaps and bounds, makes it necessary for ophthalmic surgeons to grasp new concepts and learn new things everyday. Consequently, facing complications – expected or unexpected – is part of life. Knowing how to manage a complication appropriately so as to achieve an optimal or, at the least, an acceptable outcome for the patient is what makes a good surgeon stand out. It becomes the responsibility of every surgeon to prepare him- or herself to be able to operate in such a manner so as to avoid problems and to be able to manage any complications that might still arise despite best efforts.
Complications in Ocular Surgery, Amar Agarwal presents
nearly 30 chapters dedicated to surgery in all specialties and the
potential complications that can arise. Each chapter provides
extensive knowledge of potential complications to prepare surgeons
for the complications to expect and strategies to avoid them. Expert
international ophthalmic surgeons with extensive experience offer
their expertise to readers in the prevention, identification, and
management of complicated cases. Chapters are abundantly illustrated
with more than 375 high-quality images.
Complications in Ocular Surgery includes an interactive website of quality videos on the most usual complications in cataract, refractive, retina, glaucoma, oculoplastics, and cornea surgeries. Text from the book appears and is reinforced throughout the website, providing a full spectrum of coverage.
The editors are Amar Agarwal, MS, FRCS, FRCOphth, Chairman and Managing Director, Dr. Agarwal's Group of Eye Hospitals and Eye Research Centre, Chennai, India and Soosan Jacob, MS, FRCS, DNB, MNAMS, Senior Consultant Ophthalmologist, Dr. Agarwal's Group of Eye Hospitals and Eye Research Centre, Chennai, India. The book has 45 world-class contributing authors.
Complications in Ocular Surgery is compact and handy with 30 chapters devoted to all ophthalmic subspecialities. Specialists from various fields have made this book especially interesting by dealing with prevention, diagnosis, and management of complications in an easily readable and lucid manner. Quality photographs have been used to enhance understanding. The interactive Web site is a useful tool for readers to enrich their experience and learn from the experts in the field. Watching the high-resolution videos that are included herein greatly enhances understanding.
Chapters of Complications in Ocular Surgery include:
Section I: Preliminary Preparations
Section II: Complications in Oculoplastics: Avoidance and Management
Section III: Complications in Refractive Surgery: Avoidance and Management
Section IV: Complications in Cornea, Conjunctiva, and Glaucoma: Avoidance and Management
Section V: Complications in Cataract Surgery: Avoidance and Management
Section VI: Complications in Vitreoretinal Surgery: Avoidance and Management
Section VII: Miscellaneous
… From cosmetic procedures to corneal collagen cross-linking to challenging cataract cases, Dr. Agarwal, Dr. Jacob, and a tour de force of international experts provide invaluable insights into the avoidance, recognition, and management of both common and uncommon complications in all fields of ophthalmic surgery. The tips and techniques provided by the authors in the extensively illustrated text are clearly demonstrated in the 30 accompanying videos, many of which have won awards at international ophthalmology meetings for their content and presentation. I suggest that all ophthalmic surgeons read this book to learn from the collective experience and wisdom of the authors, and to apply the lessons learned to the care of their own patients.... – Anthony J. Aldave, MD, Associate Professor of Ophthalmology, Director, Cornea Service, Director, Cornea and Refractive Surgery Fellowship The Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles.
Complications in Ocular Surgery, imparting the experience and knowledge of worldwide experts in ophthalmic surgery, helps readers avoid as well as manage complications that arise with their patients in an appropriate manner. Written in user-friendly language, with an easy-to-follow format, it advances readers’ understanding to a new level, and access to the video website provides a new level of knowledge in surgical complications.
Practicing ophthalmologists, sub-specialists, as well as ophthalmic residents and medical students will benefit from this compact, yet widely comprehensive guide.
Professional & Technical / Social Sciences / Criminology
Criminology (2nd Edition) by Frank J. Schmalleger (The Justice Series: Pearson Education, Inc., Prentice Hall)
Criminology is a concise, user friendly criminology text that teaches students about the field of criminology using the learning skills they already possess. In recognition of the visual orientation of today's learners, the book is designed to provide a comprehensive integration of graphic art with the concepts and ideas of criminology. Consequently, Criminology is intensely visual.
A household name in criminal justice, the widely-published author, Frank J. Schmalleger, is Distinguished Professor Emeritus, The University of North Carolina at Pembroke where he chaired the university's Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminal Justice. He was also adjunct professor with Webster University in St. Louis, Missouri and taught in the New School for Social Research's online graduate program.
Chapters of Criminology include:
PART 1 Criminology Explained – The Evil Men (and Women) Do
PART 2 Crime Causation – What We Do and Why We Do It
PART 3 The Crime Picture – It’s Not Pretty
PART 4 Crime in the Modern World – Today’s Headlines
Authors and instructional designers in Criminology provide engaging infographics, flowcharts, pull-out statistics, and other visuals that flow with the body of the text, provide context and engagement, and promote recall and understanding. The book is organized around learning objectives for each chapter and tied together in a new objective-driven, end-of-chapter layout. The content is engaging and easy to follow and focuses students on the learning objectives. The lavish use of figures, charts, and line art visually attracts readers to the subject matter of criminology.
Criminology provides students with straightforward explanations of criminology's important concepts and schools of thought. Content is accessible through the use of plain language and common sense definitions of key terms. Cases in every chapter illustrate the principles discussed and provide true-to-life stories of criminal offenders. Thought-provoking questions within the cases provide students with the opportunity to apply what they've learned.
New to this 2nd Edition of Criminology:
Supplementary materials available to support instructors' use of the main text include:
MyCJLab for Criminology is a dynamic course management and assessment program designed to support the way students learn and instructors teach. Instructors can manage their entire course online or simply allow students to study at their own pace using personalized assessment tools and preloaded interactive exercises and critical-thinking assignments. CJSearch, Pearson's new media search tool built into MyCJLab, makes it easy to integrate current events into instructors’ courses. Key features of the program include: personalized learning, grade book and performance tracking, interactive concept application, and critical analysis assignments.
This is one of the most engaging books I have seen in a while. – Terri Earnest, University of Texas at San Antonio
It is easy to follow, has excellent content, and promotes active learning. – Kimberly Dodson, Illinois University-Quad Cities
It's very impressive that both the pre- and post-tests are able to tell students exactly what areas they need to focus on. – David Pasick, Mohawk Valley Community College
I like the reteaching aspect of the simulations. Even if the students have the knowledge to complete an activity, the information will help set up the activity and draw in the focus of the students to the task at hand. – Jay Kramer, Central Georgia Technical College
Powerfully illustrated, with compelling content, Criminology visually attracts readers to the subject matter of criminology, making for ease of learning. Its layout and design invite readers to explore its pages, which illustrate the critical concepts that are central to the field of criminology today. The book doesn't rely on distracting, overly used photos to add visual appeal. Every piece of art serves a purpose – to help students learn.
Throughout the Justice Series, authors and instructional designers have come up with a groundbreaking new series of print and digital content. Although brief, affordable, and visually engaging, this series is no quick, cheap way to appeal to the lowest common denominator, but a series of texts and support tools that are instructionally sound and student-approved. Other books in the Justice Series include: Corrections by Alarid & Reichel, Policing by Worrall & Schmalleger, Criminal Investigation by Lyman, Criminal Procedure by Worrall, Juvenile Delinquency by Bartollas & Schmalleger.
Social Sciences / Anthropology
Debating Authenticity: Concepts of Modernity in Anthropological Perspective edited by Thomas Fillitz and A. Jamie Saris (Berghahn Books)
The longing for authenticity, on an individual or collective level, connects the search for external expressions to internal orientations. What is largely referred to as production of authenticity is a reformulation of cultural values and norms within the ongoing process of modernity, impacted by globalization and contemporary transnational cultural flows. Debating Authenticity interrogates the notion of authenticity from an anthropological point of view and considers authenticity in terms of how meaning is produced in and through discourses about authenticity. Incorporating case studies from four continents, the topics reach from art and colonialism to exoticism-primitivism, film, ritual, and wilderness. Some contributors emphasize the dichotomy between the academic use of the term and the one deployed in public spaces and political projects. All, however, consider authenticity as something that can only be understood ethnographically, and not as a simple characteristic or category used to distinguish some behaviors, experiences, or material things from other less authentic versions.
Editors are Thomas Fillitz, Associate Professor of Social Anthropology and Director of the Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology at the University of Vienna and A. Jamie Saris, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Anthropology at the National University of Ireland-Maynooth and Co-Chair of the Combat Diseases of Poverty Consortium.
According to Fillitz and Saris in the introduction to Debating Authenticity, it is difficult to live in Europe or North America and not be struck by the ubiquity of the notion of authenticity and cognate terms in the society at large. Modern consumer society in late capitalism is intimately entwined with debates about authenticity, not just with products, whose validity needs somehow to be authorized – from organic food to art (that is, the sense of authentic origins) – but also with respect to certain sorts of experiences and ways of being-in-the-world (that is, in the sense of the authentic correspondence of content). At this level, authenticity presents readers with some productive ambiguities. The modern deployment of authenticity – from its use to sell certain kinds of food, exotic artifacts, works of art, to particular kinds of experiences, such as adventure holidays – presupposes that there is a downmarket variety of what is on offer. Cost is one of the ways of avoiding this part of the market, but connoisseurship is even more necessary. Some marketers such as Michael Silverstein, for example, discuss this phenomenon in terms of a `Treasure Hunt': with consumers willing to spend considerable time saving money on some items in order to devote more time and resources to discover socially sanctioned value for specific purchases. Yet, the basis of this connoisseurship is always imperiled as the market massifies, as the treks become easier, and as just what constitutes a genuine class of consumer item becomes subject to ever-greater scrutiny and skepticism (again, think of organic food). Authenticity, then, possesses a surprising social resonance at this moment in history.
According to Debating Authenticity, not surprisingly, it is now a commonplace in anthropology and related disciplines that artifice and authenticity are intimately related, and that real people in concrete social-historical circumstances spend as much time working on their understandings of inauthentic as they put into imagining the more valued part of the opposition. The irony is, in the increasing contradiction between the permanency of men's pretensions and the transience of their conditions, between the solidity of the identities they claimed for themselves and the fluidity of the roles they actually played.
In Debating Authenticity, the debate is launched with the paper of Jamie Saris. He offers a rereading of Edward Sapir's intriguing essay `Culture, Genuine and Spurious', in pursuit of a definition of authenticity that might prove more anthropologically relevant than those that have gone before. In his ethnographic example, following two periods of political struggle in Ireland that coalesced around the attachment of discrete class fragments to particular objects – middle-class interest in Irish-themed jewelry in the mid-nineteenth century and what we might label underclass elements' attachment to horses in urban and suburban environments in late twentieth- and early twenty-first century Dublin. Authenticity emerges as a quality of experience with respect to an object or a life-episode. It is best contrasted with alienation and fetish.
Rajko Mursic rejects the term authenticity altogether, and rather focuses on the politics of authenticating and its consequences. The key problem, according to him, is that it may not be possible to think of authenticity without (social) exclusionism. Mursic mentions examples of authenticating exclusionism in music, especially rock and its roots, and, briefly, in anthropology.. He considers the discourse of authenticity in both cases as essentializing, establishing the grounds for the essentialist notions of culture, nation and race.
The second section of Debating Authenticity opens on reflections of so-called moral discourses of authenticity. Lawrence Taylor analyses the search for authentic wilderness in Arizona's Sonora Desert of the American West. He sees it in the context of a larger struggle over the meaning and moral valence of the landscape involving national organizations dedicated to the preservation and proper use of wilderness environments. Taylor calls this contention a moral geography. In these moral geographies, the role of authenticity is signaled in popular discourses as authentic wilderness, authentic Christians and authentic (real). In these the term authenticity carries a moral dimension. Taylor concludes that the lone pilgrim is the ideal person to experience wilderness. Here, the pilgrimage represents a moral geography that seeks inward authenticity in outward journey.
Jean-Pierre Warnier suggests the notion of a moral economy of authenticity. The first point of his argument is that there are two dimensions of authenticity, that is, politics and economy and he concludes that there is a political economy of authenticity. There is, however a moral economy of authenticity, that results from the fact that the quest for authenticity is pervaded with moral issues concerning forgery, truthfulness, good and evil, right or wrong. Warnier's contribution is based upon field research he has done with students in the region of Franche-Comte, in north-eastern France.
Jorge Grau Rebollo scrutinizes some of the repertoires of typical Spanish souvenirs. Some of these images are also part of the `Spain' brand abroad and some are displayed on tourist-aimed websites. Some of these so-called cultural icons were actually also made up inside Spain, as an exaltation of a notion of Spanishness as a moral distinctive trait. Grau Rebollo asks what these Spanish essences actually consist of, how and why certain images have become so closely associated to an essence of a whole country. Grau Rebollo exposes contradictions of the representation of certain authentic cultural icons, and he deals with mainstream Spanish cinema as a fundamental cornerstone in the process of shaping, spreading and even contesting essentialist national values. He concludes that some authenticities may be no more than the result of an intentional distortion and suggests stressing and analyzing not only that deformation, but the underlying reason for it.
The third section of Debating Authenticity is placed under considerations of the academic conceptual use of the notion, the investigation of the criteria used for its use and social practices of collective discourses. Inger Sjorslev considers the notion as an analytical concept and not only a concept of different emic discourses to be dealt with anthropologically. She both seeks to deconstruct authenticity as a discursive formation and realizes that this does not make the search for that, which is covered by the term authentic meaningless. It cannot be used from the outset to determine whether things are essentially authentic or not. She aims to move the idea of authenticity away from its Western linking, out into sociality, the collective and (outer) form. Sjorslev deals with these issues in the context of the ethnographic example of Brazilian Candomble, a religion sustained by sociality, which is reflected mainly in the practice of ritual possession, while at the same time celebrating the individual
Paul van der Grijp questions whether we should reject the notion of authenticity altogether as purely ideological. Authenticity is a slippery concept for anthropologists and is usually presented in emic rather than etic terms. The use of the notion of authenticity is indeed particularly doubtful when applied to peoples from non-Western cultures that have adopted and adapted elements of modernization and have become `less traditional' and thus `less authentic'. Van der Grijp's approaches the topic by looking first at contemporary art production in the Polynesian kingdom of Tonga and local ideas about authenticity, and, second, at Primitivism in Western art and the set of ideas related to it.
Andre Gingrich in Debating Authenticity differentiates between two uses of the notion: first, it is used by several groups in the world we interact with; second, it is also a term regularly used by some academic fields outside anthropology. Gingrich's own use of authenticity is kept to the term's local and wider `expressive' meanings that is, to some indigenous and public discourses. He discusses decorated wooden pillars and mural paintings from southwestern Saudi Arabia. Gingrich interprets the differences as communicating a fairly smooth process of Hijazi integration into the Saudi kingdom, as opposed to a relatively tumultuous and dramatic process of Asiri integration. Gingrich argues that these processes of integration into national Saudi statehood, and into the transnational and global forces of a Sunni Islam in its Wahhabi variant, represent an appropriate perspective in order to understand, i.e., deconstruct and reconstruct continuity and discontinuity in, what is seen as authentic folk art.
Marcus Banks questions in his paper what visual inauthenticity might look like. He starts off with considering the varied meanings and implications of authenticity for anthropology when it comes to a consideration of the visual image. Banks relies on the distinction between nominal and expressive With respect to photomechanical images, he separates two aspects to nominal authenticity: The authenticity of the image-as-object; and the authority of the image content. Banks concludes that given the historical and ethnographic evidence, it is unclear how the idea of establishing authenticity in the abstract is helpful to anthropology.
The papers of the last section of Debating Authenticity finally categorically reject any genuine dimension of culture and emphasize encounter, the contact out of which images of authenticity are produced. Roy Dilley's story is one of hybridity, of metissage and of dialogic relations. His meaning of authenticity is an emergent quality engendered by a series of generative social relations, here, relationships of knowledge production and the cultural and political struggles entailed within that production. Dilley's focus is upon knowledge practices and upon some of the products of those knowledge practices by considering the colonial officer Henri Gaden's ethnographic photographs of peoples and places within West Africa. The quality of authenticity arises in the matrix of a cultural and political struggle over the means of production of cultural value.
Judith Okely's presentation is a critique of culture as resting on isolation, which has influenced notions of authenticity. Instead, objects are transformed as cultural artifacts through opposition and encounters with the Other. She considers the Gypsies a prime example of selective creativity: they are brilliant bricoleurs. Gypsies survive by learning and fulfilling various needs of the sedentary population. They recycle the gorgios' rubbish, while the latter seek exoticism from a once nomadic group, who are credited with mysterious powers, re-consume these objects as personalized and `handmade' Gypsified objects. Ironically, many of these hawked goods are not valued within the group itself. While non-Gypsies are sold such real Gypsy objects, the Gypsies select and commission from the larger society alternatively valued material objects, which they transform into symbols of separate ethnicity. Thus on each side of the ethnic divide there are contrasting uses and interpretations of material objects.
Finally, Thomas Fillitz scrutinizes expressive authenticity. In doing so, he connects images social actors have of societies and cultures, which drives them to search for specific representative objects. Considering discourses about contemporary art of Africa, his main hypothesis is that cultural regimes affirm a power of display, of a making visible within the global art world or of negating visibility, and hindering the public to see and experience such other works. Fillitz argues that authenticity refers to a construction, to cultural classifications, which are dynamic and changeable. What may be labeled authentic contemporary artistic expression has as referent the context of African post-colonial modernities and forms interconnections with many different cultural fields. These latter cannot be reduced to binary dichotomies between tradition and modernity. The question is one of articulating Afrocentric modernities as differentiated from European/North-American modernity. The contemporary quest for authenticity thus becomes, in the end, a matter of cultural diversity.
This fascinating, wide-ranging study interrogates the notion of authenticity from an anthropological point of view and considers authenticity in terms of how meaning is produced in and through discourses about authenticity. The particular anthropological approach, common to the contributions in Debating Authenticity, is the central focus on people and their activities in the various cultural settings around the globe, who are reflecting and producing a division between authenticity and its opposite.
Travel / Europe
Rick Steves' Germany 2013 by Rick Steves (Avalon Travel Publishing)
Rick Steves' Germany 2013 focuses on
Germany's top big-city, small-town, and rural destinations. The book
takes readers from fairy-tale castles, alpine forests, and quaint
villages to the energetic Germany of today. They get the details on
cruising the romantic Rhine or going to the top of the Zugspitze.
They find out how to have a relaxing soak at a Black Forest mineral
spa or take an exhilarating summer bobsled ride in the Bavarian
Alps. They can flash back to Berlin’s turbulent past at Checkpoint
Charlie, then celebrate the rebirth of Dresden and its glorious
Steves’s candid, humorous advice in Rick Steves' Germany 2013 guides travelers to good-value hotels and restaurants. He helps them plan where to go and what to see, depending on the length of their trip. Readers learn which sights are worth their time and money and how to get around Germany by train, bus, and car.
Steves has spent 100 days every year since 1973 exploring Europe. He produces a public television series (Rick Steves' Europe), a public radio show (Travel with Rick Steves), and an app and podcast (Rick Steves Audio Europe); writes a bestselling series of guidebooks and a nationally syndicated newspaper column; organizes guided tours that take thousands of travelers to Europe annually; and offers an information-packed website. With the help of his staff of 80 at Europe Through the Back Door, Steves's mission is to make European travel fun, affordable, and culturally broadening for Americans.
The German destinations covered in Rick Steves' Germany 2013 are balanced to include a comfortable mix of cities and villages, mountaintop hikes and forgotten Roman ruins, sleepy river cruises and sky-high gondola rides. Steves also includes a taste of neighboring Austria, with side-trips into Tirol and Salzburg. While readers will find the predictable biggies (such as Rhine castles and chunks of the Berlin Wall), he has also mixed in a healthy dose of Back Door intimacy (a beer with Bavarian monks, a thrilling mountain luge). Steves is selective, including only the most exciting sights. For example, of the many castles in the Mosel Valley, he guides travelers to the best: Burg Eltz.
Rick Steves' Germany 2013 is travelers’ tour guide in their pocket. The book is organized by destinations. Each destination is a mini-vacation on its own, filled with exciting sights, strollable neighborhoods, affordable places to stay, and memorable places to eat. Readers will find these sections:
Travelers can browse through Rick Steves' Germany 2013, choose their favorite destinations, link them up, and then have a wunderbar trip. Traveling like a temporary local, they will get the absolute most out of every mile, minute, and dollar.
A trip to Germany is like a complex play – easier to follow and to really appreciate on a second viewing. While no one does the same trip twice to gain that advantage, reading Rick Steves' Germany 2013 in its entirety before the trip accomplishes much the same thing.
Depending on the length of the trip, and taking geographic proximity into account, Steves’ recommended priorities are:
Travelers can count on Rick Steves' Germany 2013 to tell them what they really need to know when traveling in Germany. More than just reviews and directions, a Steves’ guidebook is a tour guide. It gives travelers all the information and opinions necessary to wring the maximum value out of their limited time and money. If they plan a month or less in Germany and have a normal appetite for information, Rick Steves' Germany 2013 is all they need. If they are travel-info fiends, this book sorts through all the superlatives and provides a handy rack upon which to hang their supplemental information.
Creative Dynamics: Diagrammatic strategies in narrative by Christina Ljungberg, with series editors Olga Fisher and Christina Ljungberg (Iconicity in Language and Literature Series Vol 11: John Benjamins Publishing Company)
Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery: Expert Consult – Online and Print (2-Volume Set), 4th edition edited by Nicholas T. Kouchoukos MD, Eugene H. Blackstone MD, Frank L. Hanley MD and James K. Kirklin MD (Elsevier Saunders)