Contents This issue:
Blood, Sweat and Tears – The Changing Concepts of Physiology from Antiquity into Early Modern Europe edited by Manfred Horstmanshoff, Helen King and Claus Zittel, with general editor Karl A.E. Enenkel (Intersections: Interdisciplinary Studies in Early Modern Culture Series, Volume 25: Brill)
Essentials of Glaucoma Surgery edited by Malik Kahook MD, with associate editors John P. Berdahl, Jonathan A. Eisengart, Mahmoud A. Khaimi, Nathan M. Radcliffe, Joshua D. Stein & Jeffrey M. Zink (Slack Incorporated)
Arts & Photography / History / US / Civil War
Battlefields of Honor: American Civil War Reenactors photographs by Mark Elson, text by Jeannine Stein, foreword by James Lighthizer (Merrell Publishers)
On a Civil War battlefield in Virginia, Confederate soldier Brandon Booth rises from under his wool blanket, brushes off the morning chill, and begins to make his breakfast. The year is not 1865 but 2012, and just hours ago Booth was battling twenty-first-century rush-hour traffic.…
Booth is one of thousands of people across the United States and further afield who feel an intense and personal connection to this historical period, and straddle two worlds many years apart. For them, reading about the war is not enough; they must immerse themselves in it via staged and free-form reenactments. – from the book
Some 150 years on, interest in the American Civil War (1861–65)
is at an all-time high, no more so than among the thousands of
people across the United States and Europe who participate in
reenactments. They leave their jobs and homes behind to become
battle-weary soldiers, courageous generals, dedicated nurses and
even eager newspaper reporters, adopting not only the clothes of the
era, but also the language, mannerisms and food. In
Battlefields of Honor, Mark Elson’s expressive images,
themselves evoking the look and style of nineteenth-century
photographs, capture the attention to detail that goes into such
reenactments. Exploring such themes as the meticulous choreography
frequently involved in the restaging of battles, the role women
played in the conflict, and the behind-the-scenes work of artisans
responsible for crafting replica uniforms, weaponry and utensils,
Battlefields of Honor is a documentary essay on the men and
women who feel an intense, often personal connection to a monumental
period in America’s past. Elson is a Los Angeles-based photographer
and film-maker who specializes in wet-plate processes, and Jeannine
Stein has been a journalist for more than 20 years and has written
for major daily newspapers and magazines.
In Battlefields of Honor, readers are introduced to both Americans and non-Americans who are finding good in the fiery ordeal of the Civil War. From Pennsylvania to Georgia and beyond, these living historians are keeping this important history alive, and are sowing the seeds of history within the next generation – a most fitting and proper way to commemorate the Civil War. Readers also learn the ‘who,’ ‘what,’ ‘when,’ ‘where,’ ‘how,’ and, most importantly, ‘why’ of what these men and women do to keep this history fresh in our collective consciousness.
According to Stein, reenacting the Civil War is more than an excuse for grown-ups with a penchant for history to play dress up. This cultural phenomenon has roots that go back to the war itself, when reenactments were used to recruit soldiers.
Reenactments vary in scope and flavor, from an abbreviated clash on a high-school football field to elaborately choreographed combat on the actual site of a Civil War battle. Reenactors, too, embrace various levels of authenticity. Some are content to march in imported polyester-blend uniforms and spend the night in a motor home. Others, called ‘authentics’ or ‘hardcores,’ pay excruciating attention to detail, making sure the stitch counts in their uniforms are identical to those of period uniforms and sleeping on the ground, enduring the same hardships the soldiers lived through, including hypothermia, insect bites, and having little to eat.
Larger reenactments often feature other elements of wartime life, such as army camps and cavalry units, as well as living-history areas, which might include medical tents, members of the American Anti-Slavery Society, pubs, politicians' tents, and gambling dens. Entire families become involved, embracing every aspect of nineteenth-century life.
While most reenactments are put on for an audience, some private events, called ‘immersions,’ are for reenactors only. Such events – usually held in rugged, natural areas – are a chance for the participants to become completely engrossed in the life of a Civil War soldier. Although they will never know what that soldier truly experienced, this is probably the closest they will ever come.
According to Battlefields of Honor, if reenactors surrender to the illusion willingly, they do so for different reasons. For some, recreating battles and events from a war fought 150 years ago is a way of reconnecting with a monumental period of America's past. Those reenactors whose ancestors were involved in the war participate to keep the memory of their predecessors alive and to honor their service. Many make an effort to appreciate the adversity their ancestors faced and the courage they displayed. Americans who reenact strive to display their patriotism. Some are literally born into it, as several generations of one family may embrace the hobby. Others find that the virtual time travel of a reenactment allows them temporarily to abandon such modern conveniences and nuisances as mobile telephones and traffic jams – not an easy thing to do.
Battles are the reenactments' centerpieces. They can be meticulously choreographed recreations of actual engagements, or far less structured and composed. At large public events, battles are often grand spectacles carried out with great fanfare and pageantry, taking place two or three times a day. Drummers and buglers accompany foot soldiers and cavalry troops as they assemble on the battlefield, flags waving. When combat begins, musket and cannon smoke fills the air and officers shout orders to their men as they advance against the enemy. It is an exhilarating experience for both the soldiers and the audience, but as bodies begin to litter the field, the gravity of the clash becomes clear. Add to that the melancholy sound of a bugler marking the end of the day, and the toll of war is evident.
Most reenactments take place in the United States, but it is not the only country in which men and women recreate the Civil War. Reenactment communities thrive in the United Kingdom, Australia, France, Germany, and Sweden. At first, it may not make sense to say that the war strikes a chord with them too, but consider this: a large percentage of Civil War soldiers were new European immigrants, and these modern-day reenactors could well be their distant relatives. British reenactments, which attract people from various points across Europe, are often carried out with great enthusiasm on the sweeping grounds of impressive manor houses. Great attention is paid to detail, and reenactors stage battles with pomp and ceremony and fight them with much vigor. They often incorporate their own rituals, too, such as finishing the battle in time for afternoon tea. Such routines may not be authentic, but they lend the event a distinctive and appealing quality.
Battlefields of Honor says that women are integral to the staging of a reenactment, too. Although men may dominate the battlefield, women portray a variety of roles. Some tend camp while the men are off fighting, spending their time preparing and cooking food and tidying up. Others take on the roles of aid-givers, Southern belles, nurses and doctors, or craftswomen. At larger reenactments it is common to see women portraying such notable Civil War figures as Harriet Tubman, the abolitionist; Clara Barton, a nurse who later founded the American Red Cross; and Dr. Mary Edwards Walker, a surgeon during the war and the only woman ever to have received the Medal of Honor. Women whose husbands portray such famous military and political figures as Ulysses S. Grant and Jefferson Davis often reenact their high-profile wives.
Some women, however, are not content to sit on the sidelines during a battle. They would rather don a uniform, tuck their hair under a cap, take up a musket, and fight alongside the men, as some women actually did during the war. Not all regiments accept female soldiers, and many women work hard at gaining acceptance, slogging through mud and carrying a heavy knapsack just as the men do.
Whatever roles men and women choose, recreating this lost era takes time, patience, and money, and an entire industry has grown up around reenactments. Some artisans and manufacturers who supply clothes and accoutrements to reenactors spend hundreds of hours making uniforms, hoop skirts, weapons, tents, cooking pots, grain sacks, and everything else needed to transform modern men and women into Civil War soldiers and civilians.
Spending large sums of money pursuing their passion is not unusual for some reenactors. As they delve further into the hobby and the history of the war, they might trade their polyester-blend uniforms for hand-dyed woolens. When they do, they discover such companies as Kansas-based Sutler of Fort Scott, which sells museum-quality reproductions.
To capture such moments for Battlefields of Honor, photographer Elson used a combination of 35-mm and wet-plate photography. The latter is a nineteenth-century photographic process that can be used to produce a negative image on a glass plate or a positive but reversed image on a metal plate, also known as a ‘tintype.’ Wet-plate photography was used during the Civil War by early documentary photographers. The process is enjoying something of a renaissance, as photographers discover that, although challenging, it produces dreamy, vintage-looking images that no amount of sepia toning or digital manipulation can recreate.
With fresh and illuminating photography and insightful and engaging text, the team of Mark Elson and Jeannine Stein have done their subject justice, revealing the unique way in which people from all walks of life have chosen to honor and remember such a pivotal moment in the history of the United States. – James Lighthizer President, Civil War Trust Washington, D.C.
Elson's images are genuinely beautiful. The feel of authenticity is never less than impressive. It's difficult not to admire the stringent factuality of the re-enactors and the photographer who has preserved their activities. – Amateur Photographer
Battlefields of Honor delivers a captivating photographic and documentary journey through the remarkable world of American Civil War reenactors, from fighting on the battlefield to life behind the scenes.
Arts & Photography / How To
Flash Techniques for Location Portraiture: Single and Multiple-Flash Lighting Techniques by Alyn Stafford (Amherst Media, Inc.)
For location portraiture, professional and amateur photographers alike increasingly rely on affordable and easy-to-control small flash units. What makes flashgun photography even more attractive to the photographer is its portability. Photographers no longer have to carry large, sometimes bulky lighting equipment on location. A bag packed with a few small flash units, a couple of stands, and an assortment of light modifiers is all they need for most location portrait applications.
Small-flash photography has become widely popular and Flash Techniques for Location Portraiture offers insights on mastering the use of small-unit, hot shoe-mounted flashes called flashguns. Demonstrating the various light modifiers, techniques, and setups designed for these small powerhouses of light, the book explores how to achieve creative results from working with a single flashgun, multiple flashguns, and colored filters, as well as making adjustments with the camera’s white-balance settings. Written by Alyn Stafford, the book lists the tools required for location-portrait photography and discusses different lighting setups – from shooting in direct sunlight to night and low-light photos – for various location-portrait situations, giving photographers the confidence to make lighting decisions to produce professional results. Stafford is a portrait and commercial photographer, a former photo editor for Aviation Lifestyles Magazine and writes two photography blogs.
Using Flash Techniques for Location Portraiture readers learn how to:
According to Stafford in Flash Techniques for Location Portraiture, it wasn't until Nikon developed their i-TTL Speedlites and their Creative Lighting System in mid-2003 that he became really excited about using these small but powerful lights both in the studio and on location. With the Creative Lighting System, the wireless flash revolution was born. Photographers were finally able to get creative when it came to controlling and modifying light using single and multiple flashguns.
Flash Techniques for Location Portraiture teaches photographers the skills they need to create great location portraits with flashguns. Photographers gain an understanding of the principles of small flash photography, which allows them to create their own unique style and grow professionally and creatively as photographers.
Audio / Literature & Fiction / War
The Yellow Birds: A Novel by Kevin Powers, read by Holter Graham, unabridged, 5 CDs, running time 5.5 hours (Hachette Audio)
So begins this powerful account of friendship and loss.
In Al Tafar, Iraq, in The Yellow Birds twenty-one-year-old Private Bartle and eighteen-year-old Private Murphy cling to life as their platoon launches a bloody battle for the city. Bound together since basic training when Bartle makes a promise to bring Murphy safely home, the two have been dropped into a war neither is prepared for.
In the endless days that follow, the two young soldiers do everything to protect each other from the forces that press in on every side: the insurgents, physical fatigue, and the mental stress that comes from constant danger. As reality begins to blur into a hazy nightmare, Murphy becomes increasingly unmoored from the world around him, and Bartle takes actions he never could have imagined.
Author Kevin Powers joined the army at the age of 17, later serving a year as a machine gunner in Mosul and Tal Afar, Iraq in 2004 and 2005. After his honorable discharge, he muddled through a series of jobs, but eventually quit the last of them and enrolled in Virginia Commonwealth University, where he graduated in 2008 with a Bachelor's degree in English. He is currently a Michener Fellow in Poetry at the University of Texas at Austin, where he will receive his M.F.A. in 2012.
The audio is read by Holter Graham, who has performed numerous award-winning audiobooks, has numerous film and television credits and is president of AFTRA NY.
The Yellow Birds is harrowing, inexplicably beautiful, and utterly, urgently necessary. – Ann Patchett
Amazon Best Books of the Month, Debut Spotlight, September 2012: With The Yellow Birds, Kevin Powers introduces himself as a writer of prodigious talent and ambition. The novel opens in 2004, when two soldiers, 21-year-old Bartle and the teenaged Murphy, meet in boot camp on the eve of their deployment to Iraq. Bartle, bound by a promise to Murphy's mother to guide him home safely, takes the young private under his wing as they move through the bloody conflict that "rubbed its thousand ribs against the ground in prayer." Powers, an Iraq veteran, eyes the casual violence of war with a poet's precision but without romanticism, moving confidently between scenes of blunt atrocity and almost hallucinatory detachment with Hemingway-like economy and prose that shimmers like desert heat. Compact and emotionally intense, The Yellow Birds joins a maturing and impressive collection of Iraq War literature – both memoir and fiction – that includes Brian Castner's The Long Walk and Ben Fountain's Billy Lynn's Long Halftime Walk. – Jon Foro, Amazon.com Review
The book is so heartfelt and so good that it not only reaffirms
the power of fiction to tell the truth about the unspeakable, but
also asks serious questions of a generation of writers – myself
included – who have thus far avoided addressing these disastrous
wars directly. Reading
The Yellow Birds I became certain that I was in the presence
of a text that will win plaudits, become a classic, and hold future
narratives of the war to a higher standard. Impeccably structured
and told with the poetry of a master, I often had to put the book
down, close my eyes and savour the depth of the writing. Comparisons
with Hemingway will be inevitable because of the brevity and
economical style and with Cormac McCarthy because of the author's
talent for landscape. But Powers builds on this literary foundation
to create a style of his own. He writes without hauteur, and his
insights into the post-traumatic condition have a degree of
sharpness that frequently subvert the classical mode of his
storytelling and leave the reader with heart hammering. This is a
superb literary achievement. I urge everyone to read it. – Chris
Cleave, author of Little Bee
Compelling, brilliantly written, and heart-breakingly true, The Yellow Birds belongs in the same category as Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried and Norman Mailer's The Naked and the Dead. Thus far the definitive novel of our long wars in the Middle East; this book is certain to be read and taught for generations to come. – Philipp Meyer, author of American Rust
The Yellow Birds, written by a veteran of the war Iraq, is the intense and deeply compelling, unforgettable story of two soldiers trying to stay alive. With profound emotional insight, especially into the effects of a distant war on mothers and families at home, it is a groundbreaking novel that is destined to become a classic.
Audio / Literature & Fiction / Mysteries & Thrillers
Hostage by Elie Wiesel, Mark Bramhall and Catherine Temerson, unabridged, 6 CDs, running time 7 hours (Random House Audio)
Hostage by Elie Wiesel and Catherine Temerson (Knopf)
“Someone is missing,” Shaltiel murmurs, his
head slightly tilted. No one has heard him.
Around the table, in the dining room, the guests are telling each other stories both related and unrelated to the circumstances uniting them that evening. The atmosphere is warm and joyous. How could it not be? Didn’t they come to celebrate the life of a man and the freedom of men?
Policemen and intelligence agents, Americans and Israelis, friends and members of Shaltiel’s family, they all feel they are entitled to it, to this privilege. They all suffered along with him, from close or from far away, often in secret; they all shared his anguish, or at least they were aware of it and it had left its mark.
“Le-Hayim,” says a big, bespectacled man with delicate hands as he raises his glass: “To life.” And they all join in. Yes, to life. To the right to life. Everyone’s right. To the joy of being with someone who was going to lose his life for unacceptable, absurd reasons.
Shaltiel runs his eyes over his friends, new and old. He is grateful to them all.
But someone is missing. – from the book
From Elie Wiesel, author of Night, a charged, deeply moving novel
about the legacy of the Holocaust in today’s troubled world and the
ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict, comes
Wiesel, since 1976 the Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities at Boston University, was fifteen years old when he was deported to Auschwitz. After the war he became a journalist and writer in Paris, and since then has written more than fifty books. Wiesel has been awarded the United States Congressional Gold Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the French Legion of Honor's Grand-Croix, an honorary knighthood of the British Empire, and, in 1986, the Nobel Peace Prize.
Hostage it is 1975, and Shaltiel Feigenberg – professional
storyteller, writer and beloved husband – has been taken hostage:
abducted from his home in Brooklyn, blindfolded and tied to a chair
in a dark basement. His captors, an Arab and an Italian, don’t
explain why the innocent Shaltiel has been chosen, just that his
life will be bartered for the freedom of three Palestinian
prisoners. As his days of waiting commence, Shaltiel resorts to what
he does best, telling stories – to himself and to the men who hold
his fate in their hands.
With beauty and sensitivity, Wiesel builds the world of Shaltiel’s memories, haunted by the Holocaust and a Europe in the midst of radical change. A Communist brother, a childhood spent hiding from the Nazis in a cellar, the kindness of liberating Russian soldiers, the unrest of the 1960s – these are the stories that unfold in Shaltiel’s captivity, as the outside world breathlessly follows his disappearance and the police move toward a final confrontation with his captors.
The audio is read by Mark Bramhall whose extensive theater work includes performances in Our Town, Julius Caesar, Tartuffe, The Learned Ladies and The Winter’s Tale.
Wiesel takes us on a journey through dream, memory, and
especially storytelling in
Hostage ... He continues to remind us of the brilliant
possibilities of the philosophical and political novel. – starred
[Wiesel’s] terse first-person, present-tense narrative will hold readers ... With the intense contemporary action, the prisoner’s memories also bring close the sweep of Jewish history, including persecution and survival ... Sure to spark discussion about Middle Eastern history and politics. – Booklist
Impassioned, provocative and insistently humane, Hostage is both a masterly thriller and a profoundly wise meditation on the power of memory to connect us to the past and our shared need for resolution.
Business & Investing / Economics / Politics & Government
Regulating to Disaster: How Green Jobs Policies Are Damaging America's Economy by Diana Furchtgott-Roth (Encounter Books)
What is a ‘green job’ anyway? Few can adequately define one. Even
the government isn’t sure, readers learn in
Regulating to Disaster. Still, President Obama and
environmentalist coalitions such as the BlueGreen Alliance claim the
creation of green jobs can save America’s economy and are worth
But in Regulating to Disaster, Diana Furchtgott-Roth debunks that myth. Instead, energy prices rise dramatically and America’s economic growth and employment rate suffer – some states more than others – when government invests in nonviable ventures such as the bankrupted Solyndra. Electric cars, solar energy, wind farms, biofuels: President Obama’s insistence on these pursuits ultimately hamstrings American businesses not deemed green enough, and squeezes struggling households with regulations. And in addition, the technology subsidies Americans pay for solar panels, wind turbines, and electric batteries really help create manufacturing jobs in China and South Korea.
Regulating to Disaster reveals the nexus of union leaders, environmentalists, and lobbyists who dreamed up these projects, and benefit politically and financially from green jobs policies.
Furchtgott-Roth, former chief economist of the U.S. Department of Labor, is a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute, a MarketWatch columnist, a contributing editor of RealClearMarkets.com, and a monthly columnist for Tax Notes. From 2001 to 2002 Furchtgott-Roth served as chief of staff of President George W. Bush's Council of Economic Advisers. She also served as deputy executive secretary of the Domestic Policy Council at the White House under President George H.W. Bush and as an economist on the staff of President Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers.
In addition to tracing the origins of the ‘green job’ movement, Regulating to Disaster:
Regulating to Disaster is a must-read for anyone interested in the current downward regulatory spiral and the needed policies to deliver a robust energy future. Diana Furchtgott-Roth provides an exceptional insight to the distortion presented by interest groups willing to put their own interests ahead of the greater American public. A rare illumination, blending facts and her economic expertise, the book highlights the two paths open to America – one leading to prosperity and one leading to decline. – Robert Munger, BP International
Many religious thinkers would argue we should `Go Green' because it is the religious and spiritual thing to do. Diana Furchtgott-Roth brilliantly teaches us the fallacy of bringing religion into politics. For example, are fuel-saving technologies really more moral if (as Ms. Furchtgott-Roth writes), `New cars will become significantly more expensive, more people will die in car crashes, automakers will face higher costs and hire fewer workers'? Religious leaders can argue both sides of this issue, but what they cannot do is claim moral superiority simply because they buy a more fuel-efficient car. As Ms. Furchtgott-Roth shows us, the issue is far more complex. – Shmuel Herzfeld, Rabbi, Ohev Sholom – The National Synagogue, Washington, D.C.
This important book takes a careful look at the economics of `green' energy and environmental policies, and reveals that the green movement ushered in by Presidents Bush and Obama is best seen as an amalgam of fuzzy math (about job creation), hype (about the desirability of carbon reduction), cronyism (favoring `green' firms), and hypocrisy (about the true consequences of misguided policies). The writing is as engaging as it is persuasive. The author not only exposes the waste, dishonesty and illogic of the status quo, she also points the way forward via more effective and cost-effective approaches such as `geoengineering.' – Charles Calomiris, Henry Kaufman Professor of Financial Institutions, Columbia Business School
The author’s experience in two Bush administrations makes Regulating to Disaster a fascinating and worthwhile read.
Children’s Books / Education & Reference
5,000 Awesome Facts (About Everything!) by National Geographic Kids (National Geographic Kids Series: National Geographic)
Ever wonder how much a tiger eats? Why giraffes have blue tongues? How many licks it takes to reach the center of a Tootsie Pop?
Readers find these answers and 4,997 more in this collection.
Presenting the next must-have, fun-filled gift book from the team that created Ultimate Weird But True, 5,000 Awesome Facts treats kids to brain candy and eye candy all rolled into one treasure trove of fascinating facts.
5,000 Awesome Facts is literally busting its covers with fun-tastic facts on super, sensational topics that kids love. Who knew that there were so many sweet things to learn about chocolate or that a dozen delicious details about peanut butter would show up on a page with a few splotches of jelly to whet our appetites? Readers keep turning and a terrifyingly toothy shark tells them all about himself, while other spreads lay out tons of tips on toys and games, mysteries of history, robots and reptiles, sports and spies, and wacky words.
Contents of 5,000 Awesome Facts include:
A lively and information-packed visual feast of colorful photographs surrounded by swirling, tipping, expanding, and climbing bits of information in a high-energy design, 5,000 Awesome Facts will satisfy both casual browsers and the truly fact obsessed.
Children’s Books / Teens, Grades 9-12, Interest Level Grades 6-12 / Politics / Social Studies
Bush V. Gore: The Florida Recounts of the 2000 Presidential Election by Christine Heppermann (Landmark Supreme Court Cases Series: ABDO Publishing Company)
The US Supreme Court is the head of the judicial branch of the federal government, the highest court in the land. More than 7,000 cases are appealed to the Supreme Court each year, but only 100 to 150 are accepted.
One of those history-making cases was Bush v. Gore, which addressed the Florida vote recounts in the 2000 presidential election. In Bush V. Gore readers follow this case from beginning to end, including the social and political climates that led up to it and the effects it had after the court made its ruling. Major players are discussed, including George W. Bush, Albert Gore Junior, Dick Cheney, Joseph Lieberman, Karl Rove, William Daley, Katherine Harris, and William H. Rehnquist. Compelling chapters and informative sidebars also cover the Electoral College, presidential debates, hanging chads, third party candidates, and protests. Bush v. Gore forever influenced laws on voting procedures, absentee ballots, ballot design, and voting equipment. This landmark Supreme Court case changed the course of US history and shaped the country we live in.
Author Christine Heppermann is a columnist and reviewer for The Horn Book Magazine. A consultant for the book was Richard D. Friedman, Alene and Allan F. Smith Professor of Law at University of Michigan Law School.
Chapters in Bush V. Gore include:
Additional contents in Bush V. Gore include: The Legacy of Bush v. Gore, Timeline of Events and Rulings, Glossary, Briefs, Additional Resource, Source Notes, and an Index.
As told in the book, the US Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices nominated by the president of the United States and approved by the US Senate. The justices are appointed to serve for life. The justices generally choose cases that address questions of state or federal laws or other constitutional questions they have not previously ruled on. The Supreme Court cannot simply declare a law unconstitutional; it must wait until someone appeals a lower court's ruling on the law.
Bush V. Gore is a book in the Landmark Supreme Court Cases, which is a series in Essential Library. The Landmark Supreme Court Cases series examines the court and some of its history-making decisions. Each book in the series investigates a landmark ruling and its compelling backstory, key players, and political climate. Readers discover the case that shaped the debate about students' free speech, learn which decision declared ‘separate but equal’ facilities constitutional, and explore which ruling protects a criminal suspect's right to remain silent. The decisions the Supreme Court makes change the course of US history and shape the country we live in. Readers get informed about how it all happens with the Landmark Supreme Court Cases series.
Other books in the series include:
With its reinforced library binding and targeted reading level, Bush V. Gore is especially recommended for school libraries.
Children’s Books / Teens, Grades 6-8 / Interest Level Grades 6-12 / Literary / Guides
How to Analyze the Works of Virginia Woolf by Rosa Boshier (Essential Critiques Series, Set 3: ABDO Publishing Company)
How to Analyze the Works of Virginia Woolf explores the creative works of famous author Virginia Woolf. Works analyzed in the book include Mrs. Dalloway, A Room of One’s Own, To the Lighthouse, and Orlando. The text gives background biographical information on Woolf. The “You Critique It” feature invites readers to analyze other creative works on their own. A table of contents, timeline, list of works, resources, source notes, glossary, and an index are also included. Author Rosa Boshier is a freelance writer, artist, and educator.
By using critical theory, young readers find inspiring new ideas in Woolf's unforgettable characters and unusual narrative style. Critical theory allows readers to examine the influences behind a creation as well as the impacts of that creation.
The contents of How to Analyze the Works of Virginia Woolf include:
According to How to Analyze the Works of Virginia Woolf, critical theory helps readers learn how various works of art, literature, music, theater, film, and other endeavors either support or challenge the way society behaves. Critical theory is the evaluation and interpretation of a work using different philosophies, or schools of thought. Critical theory can be used to understand all types of cultural productions.
There are many different critical theories. If readers are analyzing literature, each theory asks them to look at the work from a different perspective. Some theories address social issues, while others focus on the writer's life or the time period in which the book was written or set. For example, the critical theory that asks how an author's life affected the work is called biographical criticism. Other common schools of criticism include historical criticism, feminist criticism, psychological criticism, and New Criticism, which examines a work solely within the context of the work itself.
Critical theory can open readers’ minds to new ways of thinking. It can help them evaluate a book from a new perspective, directing their attention to issues and messages they may not otherwise recognize in a work. For example, applying feminist criticism to a book may make them aware of female stereotypes perpetuated in the work. Applying a critical theory to a book helps them learn about the person who created it or the society that enjoyed it. Readers can also explore how the work is perceived by current cultures.
Readers conduct a critique when they use a critical theory to examine and question a work. They ask a question and find answers in the work or other related materials. Then they can create a thesis. The thesis is the key point in their critique. It is the argument about the work based on the tenets, or beliefs, of the theory they are using.
In How to Analyze the Works of Virginia Woolf, readers find summaries of famous works by Woolf, each followed by a critique. Each critique will use one theory and apply it to one work. Critical thinking sections will give them a chance to consider other theses and questions about the work. They also find out what other critics think about each particular book. Then, in the You Critique It section in the final pages of the book, they have an opportunity to create their own critique.
Essential Critiques is a series in Essential Library. Essential Critiques introduces readers to critical theory and its application. By discussing and analyzing the art of pop culture icons in theater, literature, film, art, and music, this unique series guides students through the process of thinking critically, creating a thesis, and supporting their arguments. A brief biography of each artist pairs with summaries of his or her works, allowing readers to examine and apply New Criticism, feminist theory, and reader response.
Other books in this series include:
Clear and comprehensive, with its reinforced library binding and targeted reading level, How to Analyze the Works of Virginia Woolf is especially recommended for school libraries.
Cooking, Food & Wine / Home & Garden / Crafts & Hobbies / Reference
The Home Preserving Bible by Carole Cancler (Living Free Guides Series: Alpha Books)
Drying, fermenting, pickling, curing, canning, cellaring, freezing – more and more people are getting into home food preserving, and with good reason. When readers preserve their garden's (or grocer's) bounty, they have access to healthy food year-round. Plus, they know what's in their food – and more importantly, what's not – when they control the ingredients.
Packed with detailed descriptions, illustrations, and nearly 300 recipes, The Home Preserving Bible is a one-stop reference for everything preserving-related. In it, readers get:
Chef Carole Cancler is the former owner of Private Chef Natural Gourmet, a Seattle-based company that specialized in frozen gourmet meals for 14 years. She currently writes about food arid teaches cooking classes, among them preserving and canning.
Cancler says that The Home Preserving Bible brings together her education in food science, a love of food history, a lifetime of meal preparation and home entertaining, experience in the food industry, and an interest in sustainability. The book is near and dear to her heart. She has been canning for about 50 years, starting when she was a young girl helping her mom. Today, she mostly cans fruits to use on plain yogurt every morning, and an array of pickled vegetables, from corn to pepper relish and beets.
Over the years, she has enthusiastically used frozen food to make meal preparation easier. She has also dabbled with curing pastrami, smoking salmon, making cheese and wine, and fermenting vegetables. Several years ago, she started drying food; it's much easier than canning, and produces shelf-stable food.
In the past, people preserved food because they had to; unlike today, they lacked a year-round supply of fresh food and mechanical refrigeration. In times of pestilence, war, famine, tsunamis, and earthquakes, people simply wanted to make sure they had some food ‘put by.’ They preserved food mostly by trial and error. Yet the diversity and cleverness of the methods they used is astonishing.
The Home Preserving Bible summarizes the ways in which people have been preserving food for thousands of years. They packed it in salt. They spiced it and dried it. In cold climates, they let it freeze. It hot climates, they buried it and let it ferment. They stored it in animal stomachs and hides. They used every bit of it, beasts from nose to tail and plants from fruit to vine. Preserving methods go well beyond freezing food in an electric appliance or canning it with special equipment.
A few of the techniques might surprise readers. Cultures throughout western and central Asia dry eggplant routinely; it is easy to do and has many delicious uses. The French preserved meat as confit, but so did the Maori in New Zealand. Hawaiians buried and fermented food in their tropical climate, and Native American cultures were making a kind of meat jerky called pemmican – both long before Europeans came exploring. Fermenting and pickling have been used by everyone everywhere for eons, using vinegar or lemon juice as well as pomegranate juice, whey, salt with oil, miso, or soy sauce.
A comprehensive book about food preservation with a broad historical context seems timely, and The Home Preserving Bible is the only book readers need to put up delicious, nutritious preserved foods. In addition, readers will find the information interesting and useful.
Education / Public Policy / Canadian
Making a Difference in Urban Schools: Ideas, Politics, and Pedagogy by Jane Gaskell and Benjamin Levin (University of Toronto Press)
What can be done to improve the educational experiences of students who live in cities with increasingly high levels of diversity and inequality? Making a Difference in Urban Schools evaluates how school and community leaders have worked to change urban education in Canada for the better over the past fifty years.
This analytic and comparative study traces the evolution of urban education in Toronto and Winnipeg from the 1960s onward. Jane Gaskell and Ben Levin identify important contrasts between the experiences in each city as a result of their different demographics, institutional structures, cultures, and politics. They also highlight the common issues and dilemmas faced by reformers in these two cities, across Canada, and globally – including many that persist and remain controversial to this day.
Gaskell is a professor in the Department of Theory and Policy Studies in Education and former dean of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, and Levin is Canada Research Chair in Education Leadership and Policy and a professor in the Department of Theory and Policy Studies in Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto.
According to Making a Difference in Urban Schools, while different demographics, institutional structures, cultures, and politics in the respective cities resulted in different approaches, reformers in both cities faced common issues and dilemmas in their attempts to improve educational outcomes. The reformers, who included elected trustees, administrators in district leadership roles, teachers, and community activists, were concerned about low student achievement in disadvantaged urban schools and about poverty concentrated in urban areas. Individually and collectively they worked to address the implications of high inequality and diversity by changing school operations, curriculum, pedagogical methods, and school-community relationships.
Gaskell and Levin focus on the political contexts that initiate, sustain, block, and change efforts for school reform. After presenting an overview of urban education in Canada and internationally, the authors provide historical accounts of developments in Winnipeg and Toronto, and introduce some of the key actors and events through a series of case studies and interviews. Later chapters look at the role of ideas and research and the politics around education reform in both districts. Making a Difference in Urban Schools concludes with an examination of ways in which reformers have tried to affect teaching and learning in classrooms, with an eye to determining which factors ultimately make a difference to students, and advocates for new strategies and policy reforms that will help educators and policy makers promote greater equity within urban school districts.
As told in the introduction to Making a Difference in Urban Schools, a campaign to improve education in Canada's poorest urban areas began towards the end of the 1960s. Reformers were responding to the fact that student achievement was and remains significantly lower in urban schools with high levels of disadvantage and that poverty was and remains largely concentrated in urban areas. They worked to address the educational implications of increasing levels of inequality and diversity by changing what was taught, how it was taught, and how the school system related to the broader community.
More than thirty years later, the achievement gaps between poor urban schools and provincial or national averages remain large nearly everywhere. In late 2008, Ontario's Commission on the Roots of Youth Violence reported on the challenges involved in improving poor urban schools and noted the lack of progress over time. Contemporary Canadian policy ideas around inner-city education are remarkably similar to the ideas – and in many cases the programs and practices – of three decades ago. Once again there are calls for revised curricula, more effective teaching, greater parent engagement, family centers, social services integrated in schools, youth workers, and outreach to various communities. Which raises the question of what, if anything, has been accomplished in the last several decades? Why do the problems of urban schools seem so unchanged despite so much effort? What can be done to improve the situation?
Gaskell and Levin say they started this research with the intent of studying how urban school districts in Canada have addressed issues of poverty over the last thirty years. Having spent their careers in education in large urban centers, they were both aware of the effect of poverty on educational outcomes, and of the challenges faced by urban school districts trying to provide effective and engaging education. They decided to recast their analysis and Making a Difference in Urban Schools more broadly.
Debates about education can benefit from evidence from well-contextualized stories about school reform. People often draw their views from another single person's experience, such as that of a child in school, or a friend or partner who is a teacher. Local policy and practice are often shaped by the personal experience of a principal or a superintendent or a trustee. Statistical or research-based evidence can play an important role, as it did in Toronto and Winnipeg. But research has an impact only when it connects to a narrative about what it means – what former Ontario education minister Gerard Kennedy calls a 'storyline.'
The Canadian debate is often influenced by the United States, even though the educational contexts in question are very different. In education, as in many areas, it is important for Canadians to know their own stories.
Making a Difference in Urban Schools is organized as follows. Chapter 1 discusses urban education and its challenges in Canada and internationally; sets the context in which these events unfolded; and reviews the literature on urban educational reform in other jurisdictions. The following two chapters are chronological accounts of major events and developments in each city – Winnipeg in chapter 2, and Toronto in chapter 3. They introduce some of the key actors and recount some of the most salient events, providing the historical scaffolding on which later chapters build. The next three chapters take up the central themes in their analysis: ideas, politics, and pedagogy. Chapter 4 looks at the role of ideas and research, and explores how ideas about education were important in motivating and sustaining change and how research was organized to provide evidence and inform public opinion. Chapter 5 examines the politics around education reform in both districts, looking at school boards as political sites in which elections, institutional traditions, and public servants shape what can be achieved. Chapter 6 looks at the ways that reformers tried to affect teaching and learning in classrooms – the factors that ultimately make a difference to students. Chapter 7 provides a conclusion and suggestions for what might happen next to improve education in Canada's cities.
Making a Difference in Urban Schools is a must-read book for graduate students, ministry personnel, trustees, school board employees, community workers, and activists interested in understanding the possibilities of educational change and school reform through a school board politics lens. Providing valuable insight into how school boards have taken up agendas around poverty and diversity, it is a significant contribution to the field of Canadian school reform. – Katina Pollock, Faculty of Education, University of Western Ontario
Making a Difference in Urban Schools provides a very informative account of efforts to address problems of equity in urban school districts, along with practical insights and recommendations on designing and supporting change initiatives. Engaging and accessible, it will be a useful reference for school-based leaders, school trustees, and policy makers at both the district and ministerial levels. It will also appeal to students and researchers interested in governance, policy, poverty, and educational reform. – Lynn Bosetti, Dean of Education, University of British Columbia Okanagan
Making a Difference in Urban Schools explores two districts in a way that is accessible to a broad audience and of interest to a wide variety of people engaged in educational arguments. In recounting and analyzing the reform efforts in Winnipeg and Toronto, it sheds light on the problems of urban education, particularly in Canada, but also around the world. The histories of these two districts can contribute to understanding the Canadian story or stories, though readers may disagree about the lessons that should be derived from them. These stories will inspire the next generation of advocates for better urban education.
Education & Reference / Schools & Teaching / Computers & Internet
Digital Decisions: Choosing the Right Technology Tools for Early Childhood Education by Fran Simon & Karen N. Nemeth, with a foreword by Chip Donohue (Gryphon House)
Digital Decisions offers guidance and strategies for early childhood educators, administrators, and directors looking to embrace and integrate technology in the classroom. This jargon-free guide helps educators choose and implement the right technology tools based on the needs of the children, the context of the curriculum, and the resources available.
The volume is written by Fran Simon, a professional early childhood educator and a passionate engagement officer with her own national marketing and consulting company and Karen N. Nemeth, a teacher and a teacher educator for more than twenty-five years, currently the Chief Engagement Officer of Engagement Strategies, LLC, her own national marketing, educational technology and publishing consulting company.
Digital Decisions is brimming with charts, resources, and an array of activities that maximize technology as an interactive learning tool. It also provides supporting guidance to make technology most effective for those who work with children who are dual language learners or who may have special needs.
The 2012 release of the NAEYC/Fred Rogers Center joint position statement on Technology and Interactive Media as Tools in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8, creates a moment in time for early educators by placing the issue of intentional, appropriate, effective, and engaging use of technology and media directly in the spotlight. The position statement raises expectations for educators to be digitally literate technology-mediators, and highlights the need for more and better technology and media training for the adults who work with young children.
Simon and Nemeth in Digital Decisions gently nudge early childhood educators and administrators toward the realization that integrating technology will take an intentional and commonsense approach. They offer vignettes that acknowledge the fears and frustrations of educators who feel overwhelmed alongside the effective practices, exhilaration, and excitement of those who have been successful. They invite readers to explore, engage, and create with technology – just as they do with any other new open-ended material readers are considering for the classroom.
Chip Donohue, Director of Distance Learning at the Erikson Institute in the foreword says that he is struck by how the goals teachers have for any appropriate material, such as finding balance; being open-ended; and encouraging meaningful exploration, creativity, problem solving and divergent thinking for the whole child, also define how early childhood educators need to think about how, why, and when to use technology and how best to support healthy media habits for young children. Digital-age educators need to be technology learners, teachers, and leaders. An intentional approach means being open-minded, willing to try new things, able to adjust to changing expectations, and open to teachable moments when the child is the best technology teacher.
How can readers evaluate the tools and opportunities technology has to offer and integrate them into their early childhood classroom so they can offer real-life, hands-on, divergent activities to children? Digital Decisions provides readers with information, ideas, and resources to help them make their own technology plan based on their experiences and beliefs, the needs of the children, the context of their curriculum, and the resources available.
As readers explore how to use technology in their classrooms, they may feel overwhelmed at times, but they may also find some digital tools easy to use and incorporate. It also helps to have the support of supervisors and other colleagues. Digital Decisions offers guidance and strategies for directors and principals so they can make good decisions about the resources and professional development they need to succeed. The book helps teachers and their administrators develop a plan and then explain to the parents in the program the link between developmentally appropriate practice and technology integration in the early childhood classroom. Most of all, the book offers the information they need to evaluate the use of technology in the classroom and then apply what they have learned to decide how, why, and what technology is most appropriate and effective for the children in the class.
Digital Decisions opens up new ways of thinking about technology and young children by offering sound and concrete advice rooted in the everyday realities of early childhood classrooms. It is refreshing to see examples of technology use with young children that feature open-ended play and exploration. Don't miss the book's creative ideas for Skyping with faraway family members to promote cross-cultural discussions, for harnessing the power of mobile voice apps to foster language development, and for employing simple graphing software to help children understand math concepts. – Lisa Guernsey, Director, Early Education Initiative, New America Foundation
Simon and Nemeth have come out with a timely resource on technology that is a must-have for today's early childhood teachers and administrators. Coinciding with the release of the joint position statement on technology in early childhood programs by the National Association for the Education of Young Children and the Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children's Media at Saint Vincent College, this no-nonsense, jargon-free guide helps teachers wade through the wide inventory of technology in all of its forms and select those platforms and devices that will best support the curriculum in developmentally appropriate ways. The authors provide an array of interactive activities that show teachers how to maximize technology as a true learning tool. In addition, each chapter provides supporting guidance for administrators and for those working with children who are dual language learners or who may have special needs. Digital Decisions is brimming with charts, resources, and clear judgments that will make a subject that is overwhelming to many easy for all to understand and apply. This is a reference every early childhood program will want to have. – Laura J. Colker, EdD, President, L.J. Colker & Associates, Contributing Editor, Teaching Young Children, NAEYC
For a long time, I have been longing for a book for early childhood educators on digital technology. Now, here's the book I have been waiting for – a treasure trove of practical information, soundly based on the best child development and educational research for young children. Simon and Nemeth anticipate and address your every question with how-to information. Most important, they transform the debate from defining technology as good or bad; rather, showing us how to use technology actively and interactively within good active and interactive early childhood programs. – Ellen Galinsky, author of Mind in the Making: The Seven Essential Life Skills Every Child Needs
Fran and Karen have compiled a treasure trove of great advice and practical suggestions for integrating technology into an engaging and developmentally appropriate early childhood curriculum. From video cameras and iPads to interactive whiteboards and Smartpens, they share the pros and cons of different devices and applications. Even if you are already tech savvy, Digital Decisions will open your eyes and expand your awareness of how technology fits into a purposefully planned, child-centered classroom. – Paula Jorde Bloom, Michael W. Louis Endowed Chair, McCormick Center for Early Childhood Leadership
Whether readers are technology enthusiasts looking for new ideas and guidance about developmentally appropriate practices, whether they are new to the idea of using technology with young children, or whether they are skeptics, Digital Decisions is a reference they will want to have. It provides expert guidance and simple strategies in a no-nonsense and easy-to-read guide. Simon and Nemeth provide a clear pathway to developing technology leadership and improving digital literacy for educators and strategies for effectively implementing the principles and guidelines for the selection, use, integration, and evaluation of technology in early childhood programs. Readers can feel confident and competent when it comes to choosing and implementing the most appropriate technology tools for their early childhood classroom.
Fiction / Classics / Boxed Sets
Washington Irving: A Treasury: Rip Van Winkle, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Old Christmas by Washington Irving, N.C. Wyeth, Arthur Rackham and Randolph Caldecott (Universe)
Washington Irving (1783–1859) was an American author best remembered for his short stories The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle, both of which appear in Washington Irving: A Treasury.
Beautifully printed and slipcased, this elegantly produced
collection of three classic Irving masterpieces captures the magic
of folktales and makes the perfect gift for the holiday season. All
three of these time-honored Washington Irving tales first appeared
in his best-selling The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. in
1819. The high-spirited tales Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of
Sleepy Hollow present memorable folk characters that have become
part of America’s literary lexicon, while Old Christmas preserves
the nostalgia, warmth, and joy of Merrie Olde English Christmas
Each of the three hardcover cloth-bound books in Washington Irving: A Treasury, adorned with ribbon markers and slipcased into a handsome set, are beautifully illustrated with original paintings and drawings: Rip Van Winkle by N.C. Wyeth, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow by Arthur Rackham, and Old Christmas by Randolph Caldecott.
History / Europe / Medical Books
Blood, Sweat and Tears – The Changing Concepts of Physiology from Antiquity into Early Modern Europe edited by Manfred Horstmanshoff, Helen King and Claus Zittel, with general editor Karl A.E. Enenkel (Intersections: Interdisciplinary Studies in Early Modern Culture Series, Volume 25: Brill)
The papers presented in Blood, Sweat and Tears help scholars in a range of disciplines to consider why it is so difficult to provide a history of physiology; how far is this due to changing notions of what physiology is, and how far does it depend on the methods by which physiology comes to its conclusions? There has been no general history of physiology for the last forty years and, in contrast to anatomy, the topic has received very little attention at all from historians in that period. In contrast to physiology, the history of anatomy has been the subject of much recent scholarship. And within philosophy, the situation is also different.
Blood, Sweat and Tears shifts the focus to the many different
ways in which the function of the body and its fluids were
understood in pre-modern European thought. Contributors to this
volume demonstrate how different academic disciplines can contribute
to our understanding of ‘physiology’, and investigate the value of
this category to pre-modern medicine.
Blood, Sweat and Tears contains individual essays on the wider issues raised by ‘physiology’ and detailed case studies that explore particular aspects and individuals. Contributors include Barbara Baert, Marlen Bidwell-Steiner, Véronique Boudon-Millot, Rainer Brömer, Elizabeth Craik, Tamás Demeter, Valeria Gavrylenko, Hans L. Haak, Mieneke te Hennepe, Sabine Kalff, Rina Knoeff, Sergius Kodera, Liesbet Kusters, Karine van ‘t Land, Tomas Macsotay, Michael McVaugh, Vivian Nutton, Barbara Orland, Jacomien Prins, Julius Rocca, Catrien Santing, Daniel Schäfer, Emma Sidgwick, Frank W. Stahnisch, Diana Stanciu, Michael Stolberg, Liba Taub, Fabio Tutrone, Katrien Vanagt, and Marion A. Wells.
The series Intersections: Interdisciplinary Studies in Early Modern Culture brings together new material on well-considered themes within the wide area of Early Modern Studies. Each volume addresses a single theme and articles are selected for the freshness of their approach and for the extent to which they elucidate aspects of the theme, in this case, Volume 25, Blood, Sweat and Tears. The themes are carefully selected on the basis of a number of criteria, the most important of which are that they should address issues about which there is a lively debate within the international community of scholars and that they should be of interest to a variety of disciplines.
One of the main questions underlying the colloquium from which this volume derives concerned the many different ways in which we can characterize thinking about the function of the body in the period from the ancient world into early modern Europe. What was meant by `physiology' before 1800, and how and why did this change? How can different academic disciplines contribute to our understanding of earlier theories of the way the body works? The colloquium was held on 15–18 April 2009 at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences (NIAS), Wassenaar, under the aegis of KNAW (the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences). In addition, scholars whose abstracts had not been accepted for presentation were invited by the editors to write papers for consideration. Some of those attending the conference as delegates subsequently submitted papers, while word of mouth brought to the attention of the editors still others interested in contributing. The contributors to Blood, Sweat and Tears thus come from a wide range of disciplinary approaches, but all aim to contextualize the theories of the function of the body that were proposed in the periods they study.
Editors are Manfred (H.F.J.) Horstmanshoff, who has taught Ancient History at Leiden University since 1976 and was Professor of Ancient Medicine there from 2006-2011; Helen King, Professor of Classical Studies at the Open University; and Claus Zittel, who teaches philosophy and German literature at the Universities of Frankfurt am Main, Berlin (FU) and Olsztyn (Poland) and is the co-leader of the Max-Planck Research group "The Conscious Image" at the Kunsthistorisches Institut/Max Planck-Institut, Florence.
What was going on before the eighteenth century, on which this collection of essays focuses? What was physiology, before it became the speculative wing of anatomy? Tilly Tansey's chapter on 'The physiological tradition' in Bynum and Porter's Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine (1993) contained only two pages on 'the Renaissance', one of them being devoted to William Harvey. One of the roles of Blood, Sweat and Tears is to try to flesh out the period before Harvey. Anatomy claimed as its founder the great hero of classical medicine, the second-century AD writer Galen whose ideas, systematized into 'Galenism', dominated medicine into the Early Modern period. Galen himself had not been able to perform systematic human dissection, but his work on animals led him to stress the importance of understanding the structure in order to comprehend the function. Thus those sixteenth-century writers who argued that the true study of the physician or surgeon should be the 'book' of the human body itself could still call on Galen for support; if only he had been allowed by the conventions of his day to perform dissection, he would have done exactly as they were now able to do. Hence Cunningham, memorably, described the great Renaissance anatomist Andreas Vesalius as 'simply Galen restored to life.
At the peak of the practice of 'anatomy' in early modern Europe there was also a move towards seeing medicine itself as unduly 'divided' by changes in its professional and intellectual structure between the ancient world and the Renaissance. In the Preface to De corporis human fabrica (1543) Vesalius produced a polemic against the perceived inadequacies of the medicine of his own day. In this text on the fragmentation of the body, the great evil is another sort of 'fragmentation': 'that evil fragmentation of the healing art'. 'So much did the ancient art of medicine decline many years ago from its former glory': Vesalius regards the lost ideal as being the Alexandrian medicine of the third century BC, which he saw as bringing together control of diet, drugs and surgery in a single person, in contrast to the medicine of his own day when nurses supervise diet, apothecaries drugs, and barbers all manual operations. In Vesalius himself – according to Vesalius – the three spheres had been reunited; this supposed ideal of classical Greek medicine had been realized afresh. Was physiology part of the role of this ideal, holistic, physician?
But, as Vivian Nutton shows in the essay which opens Blood, Sweat and Tears, while Galen wrote a great deal about anatomy, he was less enthusiastic about the role of 'physiologizing' in medicine. Lending another dimension to the point that the modern division between anatomy and physiology is itself a historical construct, for Galen, the term physiology extended well beyond later concepts of the normal functioning of an organism and even included far more than those areas which we would label the life sciences and medicine. Deriving from the Greek phusiologia, in the ancient world physiology formed part of what is better translated as ‘the enquiry into nature' rather than as 'natural history', and represented a search for a better understanding of the power of nature and of what is 'natural' and 'contrary to nature'. In medicine, Galen believed, these types of speculation should hold only a minor place.
As discussed in the conclusion, while the papers collected in Blood, Sweat and Tears show the different possible meanings of `physiology’ and help readers to see that ideas about the function of the body are historically specific and culturally determined, what wider lessons for the history of medicine and of the body can be taken from these studies? The most important may simply be to bear in mind the links between different genres of writing. For example, Lewenheimb and Lohenstein shared a publisher, and this could facilitate the exchange of physiological metaphors and concepts between medicine and literature, a topic covered in the book by the papers of Wells and Kalif. In Lohenstein's plays, for instance in his Agrippina (1665), the temperaments of the characters are explained by using the physiological concepts of the time; the hearts of Agrippina and Nero are sometimes soft or hard, cold or hot.
Several papers challenge the periodization of the history of the body and our tendency to set up milestones. For example, Nutton argues against the `traditional ascription to Jean Fernel of the creation of physiology as a specific area of medicine' while McVaugh takes issue with those who wish to identify Mondino, Vesalius or Malphighi as discoverers of the modem kidney: `changes were already occurring in the perception of that organ well before Malpighi wrote, indeed before Harvey's proclamation of the circulation in 1628'. Blood, Sweat and Tears as a whole also challenges the category of `Early Modern', as it illustrates the continuities between the Ancient and the Modem world, and includes several papers that examine the Enlightenment. Tomas Macsotay, for example, looks at medical knowledge in eighteenth-century philosophers, focusing on the relationship between medicine and artistic production, in particular how images of suffering were read, while Tomas Demeter looks at Hume's relationship both to mechanism and to vitalism. Rainer Bromer further challenges our need to create a story of discovery, in this case of `the circulation of the blood', showing that `when Ibn al-Nafis, Servet, Itaki, al-'Attar, and finally the twentieth-century historians of medicine talk about the structure and function of the cardio-pulmonary system, they are not speaking of the same ‘thing’'.
Many contributors to Blood, Sweat and Tears also interrogate the concept of `humoral' medicine. Wells, for example, uses Webster's Duchess of Malfi to investigate how valid a humoral model was for interpreting mental symptoms in the seventeenth century, and asks whether the passions caused humoral imbalance, or humoral imbalance generated the passions, a question also addressed by Santing. Stahnisch argues that, by the end of the eighteenth century, conditions formerly linked to the humors were coming to be more closely tied to specific bodily organs. Several essays introduce very different ways of modeling the body, such as Telesio's view that conflict between the Sun and Earth was responsible for all things (Bidwell-Steiner), or Campanella's presentation of hot and cold as the adversarial forces, their rivalry having a creative effect (Kalif).
One aspect that the editors say they would like to have addressed in more detail is that of the patient's experience of the body. Frank Stahnisch addresses the theme of tears through the experiences of a famous patient, Johann Gottfried von Herder. He argues that Herder's experiences not only of suffering from repeated infections due to a blocked tear duct, but also of unsuccessful surgical treatment, led him to examine the place of tears in the human condition, first through medical training and then through philosophy and theology. As a result, Herder went beyond Haller's theories of `irritability' and looked forward to a future `physiologist of both the soul and the body of man' (Ein Physiologe der Seele and des Koerpers des Menschen'). The place of the soul, and of consciousness, in the body is another area which they would like to have developed; for example, Bromer discusses the corporeality of the soul in Islamic medicine, and Stanciu looks at Cudworth's metaphor of the `sleeping musician', whose musical skill is still within him, even when he is not himself conscious of it.
The individual papers presented in Blood, Sweat and Tears, as well as this collection as a whole, present a challenge to existing master narratives of `continuity' and `progress', by showing the many variations across time and space in early modern Europe, broadly conceived. The editors see this book as the start of a process of greater dialogue not only between those working in different periods, but also different academic disciplines. The relative ranking of physiology and anatomy has shifted over time, with physiology being seen as the prior field of knowledge; as the speculative side of anatomy; and as a subdiscipline of anatomy. Only if scholars talk to each other, and share their knowledge, will they be able to understand what physiology meant in the past.
Blood, Sweat and Tears will be useful to those working on
medicine and the body in pre-modern cultures in disciplines
including classics, history of medicine and science, philosophy, and
History / Europe / Military / World War I
Home before the Leaves Fall: A New History of the German Invasion of 1914 by Ian Senior (General Military Series: Osprey Publishing)
The German invasion of France and Belgium in August 1914 came
close to defeating the French armies, capturing Paris, and ending
the First World War before the autumn leaves had fallen. But the
German armies failed to score the knock-out blow they had planned.
The war would drag on for four years of unprecedented slaughter.
There are many accounts of 1914 from the British point of view. The achievements of the British Expeditionary Force were the stuff of legend, but in reality there were only four divisions in the field; the French and Germans had more than 60 each. The real story of the battle can only be told by an author with the skill to mine the extensive German and French archives. Ian Senior does this with consummate skill in Home before the Leaves Fall, weaving together strategic analysis with diary entries and interview transcripts from the soldiers on the ground to create a new history. In addition, all previous classic histories on the subject either focus virtually exclusively on the British experiences or are now very out-of-date such as Barbara Tuchman's Guns of August (1962) or Sewell Tyng's Campaign of the Marne (1935). Senior, who has taught at Dulwich College for many years, is also Associate Lecturer in the History of Art for the Open University and a Principal Examiner for the University of Cambridge International Examination Board.
Senior presents a narrative history that for the first time focuses on the experiences French and German troops in the long hot summer of 1914 as the outcome of the war hung in the balance, revealing how the defiant French opposition and failings in the German invasion plans ultimately foiled the German war machine and changed the course of the war.
On 18 January 1871, in a lavish and elaborately choreographed ceremony in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, Prussia celebrated its victory in the Franco-Prussian War and King Wilhelm I was proclaimed Emperor of a united Germany. After a peaceful interlude which lasted for more than 40 years, in the first week of August 1914 the two adversaries went to war once more in a conflict that this time engulfed the other great European powers. During the intervening period, the parameters that governed warfare were transformed as a consequence of accelerating technological and economic change.
According to Home before the Leaves Fall, the plans with which the Germans and the French went to war (the Schlieffen-Moltke Plan and Plan XVII respectively) were based on rapid deployment, on seizing the strategic initiative and on attacking the enemy without delay. The importance of stealing a march on one's opponents and striking the first blow was the paramount factor which governed their strategic thinking.
It is hardly surprising therefore that almost everyone, soldiers and civilians alike, firmly believed that the fighting would be over within a few months and that the troops would be home in time for Christmas. In Berlin, Kaiser Wilhelm II (whose second son, Prince Einzel Friedrich, was in command of the elite 1st Regiment of Foot Guards) said farewell to units of the Prussian Guard as they were about to leave for the front, telling them that they would soon be victorious and would return before the leaves fell. Likewise, officers in the British Expeditionary Force told their loved ones that they would be home before Christmas while those who were left behind pulled all the strings they could in a desperate effort to join their comrades in France before the fighting came to an end. In both France and Germany the troops who enthusiastically chalked a Berlin or nach Paris on the sides of their troops trains as they set out for the front never thought for one moment that it would last for over four years and that very few of them would be alive and uninjured when it finally came to an end.
Home before the Leaves Fall begins with an account of the war plans of the two major protagonists, the Schlieffen-Moltke Plan for the Germans and Plan XVII for the French, and describes their evolution in the two decades before the war. This is followed by a day-to-day account of the campaign from the third week in August, when the two sides clashed for the first time along the French-Belgian border, until 9 September, when the German right wing broke off the fight at the battle of the Marne and retreated to a defensive position along the River Aisne. The narrative focuses on events on the German right wing since it was here that the outcome of the campaign was determined. After the French 5th Army was defeated in the battle of Charleroi between 21 and 23 August it began a fortnight-long retreat, interrupted only by the battle of Guise on 29 August, whose purpose was to take the pressure off the British Army. The battle of the Marne, which began on 5 September and lasted for almost five full days, was in reality two separate but interlinked actions, which took place approximately 50 miles apart. (It was named after the River Marne because this was roughly equidistant between the two battlefields.) In the battle of the Ourcq, which was fought near Meaux to the northeast of Paris, the German 1st Army was attacked by the newly formed French 6th Army which threatened to take them in the flank as they advanced into northern France. At the same time, in the battle of the Petit Morin the German 2nd Army was involved in a vicious fight with the French 5th and 9th Armies along a 60-mile front in the region of Sezanne to the southeast of the French capital. After four days of inconclusive combat on both battlefields, the end came on the evening of 9 September when the British penetrated the imperfectly defended gap between the two German armies, forcing them to retreat before they were attacked in the flank and rear.
Readers will not find a great deal in Home before the Leaves Fall about the British Army, firstly, because it played only a minor role in the campaign, and secondly, because the two major actions in which it took part, the battles of Mons and Le Cateau, have been extensively described elsewhere. While the British contribution was certainly not negligible, the French bore the brunt of the fighting and were almost single-handedly responsible for defeating the Germans. The battle of Mons was not, as several British accounts have claimed, a crucially important battle which led to the Allied victory; on the contrary, although it took the German 1st Army by surprise and gave them a nasty shock, it was a small-scale affair compared to the battle of Charleroi which took place at the same time and it only delayed the Germans by a single day. On the other hand, the battle of Le Cateau which took place a few days later was very significant since a defeat there would probably have caused the British Commander-in-Chief, Sir John French, to withdraw his army from the Allied line, thereby preventing the planned counter-offensive from taking place. The fact that the British held on all day despite being outnumbered and then escaped more or less unscathed meant that two weeks later, during the battle of the Marne, they were able to advance into the gap between the German armies on the right wing, thus bringing about their defeat.
The final chapter of Home before the Leaves Fall investigates the reasons that the Germans lost the campaign. Although the German Commander-in-Chief, Moltke the Younger, cannot be completely exonerated, and although serious mistakes were made by Kluck and Below who commanded the German 1st and 2nd Armies respectively, it is argued that the plan which Moltke inherited from his distinguished predecessor as Chief of the German General Staff, Alfred von Schlieffen, contained serious and intractable flaws which made defeat inevitable. Schlieffen's strategy embodied by the eponymous plan that he passed on to Moltke when he retired in 1905, was responsible for losing the campaign and condemned his countrymen to four years of war and eventual defeat.
Supported by numerous sketch maps, extensive archival research and poignant first-hand accounts, Home before the Leaves Fall is an accessible, narrative account of the German invasion. The remarkable book offers a valuable new contribution to the history of 1914, examining the bitter battle between French and German forces from the perspective of the soldiers on the ground.
History / US / Foreign Affairs / Founding Fathers
Amid a Warring World: American Foreign Relations, 1775-1815 by Robert W. Smith, with series editor Robert J. McMahon (Issues in the History of American Foreign Relations Series: Potomac Books, Inc.)
The period between 1775 and 1815 could be called the ‘critical
period’ of American foreign relations. At no time in American
history was the existence of the republic in greater physical peril.
Questions of foreign policy dominated American public life in a way
unequalled until World War II. From the American Revolution through
the War of 1812, the United States was a small power confronted by
great powers hostile to each other and to the United States.
Furthermore, the era was dominated by two great revolutions that
reshaped the Atlantic world. The problem for American diplomats and
foreign policymakers was to preserve the United States, both as an
independent nation and as a republic, in a decidedly unequal contest
with the great powers.
According to Robert W. Smith, assistant professor of history at Worcester State College, in Amid a Warring World, the question of American power lay at the heart of the debate over independence. The radicals believed that the American spirit and market were enough, and favored rapid independence and an aggressive promotion of neutral rights. The moderates doubted American power, and were inclined to move slowly and only with assured French assistance. By the end of the American Revolution, the moderates had won the debate. But their victory masked the defects of the confederation, until the diplomatic humiliations of the 1780s forced the United States to create a government that could properly harness American economic and military power. The debate over the power of the United States to reshape a hostile world remains as central today as in 1776.
Amid a Warring World is part of the series: Issues in the History of American Foreign Relations with series editor Robert J. McMahon, Ohio State University. This series provides students and general readers alike with a wide range of books, written by some of the outstanding scholarly experts of this generation, that elucidate key issues, themes, topics, and individuals in the nearly 240-year history of U.S. foreign relations. The series covers an array of diverse subjects spanning from the era of the founding fathers to the present. Each book offers a concise, accessible narrative based upon the latest scholarship, followed by a careful selection of relevant primary documents. Primary sources enable readers to immerse themselves in the raw material of history, thereby facilitating the formation of informed, independent judgments about the subject at hand. To capitalize upon the unprecedented amount of non-American archival sources and materials currently available, most books feature foreign as well as American material in the documentary section. A broad, international perspective on the external behavior of the United States, one of the major trends of recent scholarship, is a prominent feature of the books in this series.
As told in the introduction to Amid a Warring World, the French Revolution, and the wars it created, dominated the Atlantic world from 1789 to 1815. American diplomacy was born in a world of great power conflict over limited issues, with room for neutrals to maneuver. After 1789 Americans faced a death struggle between Great Britain and France, with no room for neutrals. The Federalists accommodated themselves to this new reality by forming a policy of naval armament and a diplomacy that sought normal relations with both powers but did not try to resolve the issues the war created. The Republicans, however, clung to the power of the American market as a sufficient lever to change British and French maritime power. The result was the War of 1812.
Americans viewed their diplomacy through the accumulated wisdom
of the colonial experience with the wider world. Various colonies,
especially Massachusetts, embraced the idea that America was
fundamentally separate from Europe. The colonies often had to engage
in their own diplomacy with Indian tribes, other colonies, and the
mother country itself. Beginning in the 1620s, the colonies sent
agents to lobby in London. Edward Winslow of Plymouth was the first
career agent. By the middle of the eighteenth century, the agent was
an integral part of colonial government. It was not a coincidence
that two of the new nation's first diplomats, Benjamin Franklin and
Arthur Lee, had been longtime colonial agents.
The colonies were part of the broader Atlantic world, framed by the so‑called Westphalia system, beginning with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The system assumed a world of sovereign nation-states and was confirmed in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, which separated the Spanish and French crowns. Broadly speaking, the wars of the Westphalia system were limited in scope and ambition, owing as much to technological and financial limits as to political thinking. None of the great powers contemplated the complete destruction of the others. This balance of power system gave rise to what contemporaries called ‘the law of nations.’ Throughout the eighteenth century, the European powers agreed that there were rules of conduct. They did not necessarily agree on what those rules were, however, and works on the law of nations could be mined for evidence to support almost any policy decision.
The diplomatic world of the eighteenth century was framed by the long conflict between Great Britain and its allies on one side and France on the other. The colonies became a key part of this contest. During the War of Jenkins's Ear (1739-48) the British undertook significant military operations in the colonies. The French and Indian War (1754-63) was in large part a contest over who would rule the eastern third of North America. The British victory brought an enlarged empire and new imperial policy. Britain's attempt to pay for and more tightly regulate its empire led to the Stamp Act, the Townshend Duties, and the other acts that led the American colonies to rebellion.
According to Amid a Warring World, if Great Britain's power depended on its navy, and its navy on the colonial trade, then the colonists had a weapon in economic coercion. The Stamp Act triggered the first continental nonimportation agreement. This allowed the colonists to resist without committing treason. It also appealed to colonists' sense of superior virtue, as guardians of British liberty. Very simply, Americans came to believe that economic power could secure any political end. Economic coercion came close enough to working during the Stamp Act crisis to give the idea validity. With each succeeding crisis, however, nonimportation grew weaker. Ultimately, the threat of economic coercion did not prevent or ameliorate the British crackdown on Massachusetts in the wake of the Boston Tea Party. At the first Continental Congress, the delegates advised nonimportation, nonexportation, and the stockpiling of weapons. The radicals favored economic coercion because they believed it was the best weapon. The moderates went along because it fell short of armed revolt or independence.
When resistance became armed rebellion in the spring of 1775, Congress was forced to consider the questions of diplomacy with other nations. The colonial heritage, the law of nations, the idea of a balance of power, British political thought, and the experience of resistance to British taxation formed the framework of American foreign policy.
This sprightly survey of American foreign relations in the formative years is a welcome addition to the field. It is a well-written account of the vulnerable young nation in a hostile world. With its inclusion of the most recent scholarship on the period, it should be a useful supplement to an American history class. – Lawrence S. Kaplan, professor emeritus of history, Kent State University, and author of Thomas Jefferson: Westward the Course of Empire and Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile
Robert W. Smith’s new book provides an excellent overview and analysis of early American foreign policy and its role in the nation's history. More than a mere summary, however, this solid book also makes important interpretive points and provides a framework for understanding the early republic. Thus, it will be a valuable resource for scholars and students alike. – Todd Estes, author of The Jay Treaty Debate, Public Opinion, and the Evolution of Early American Political Culture
Robert W. Smith has provided a much-needed explanation of the perils the United States faced during its most critical time. In sharp, engaging prose, he shows how the young nation strove to maintain its independence in a dangerous international environment where might often made right. – Chris Tudda, historian, Department of State
Amid a Warring World provides a framework for understanding and valuable insights into early American foreign relations. This series in general makes a valuable contribution to a greater engagement with and understanding of the complexities of this fascinating and critical subject.
History / U.S. / Military
America's Secret MiG Squadron: The Red Eagles of Project CONSTANT PEG by Gaillard R. Peck Jr (General Aviation Series: Osprey Publishing)
America's Secret MiG Squadron is the story of a group of
military pioneers who were intent on using their experience and
knowledge to develop a new training paradigm for fighter pilots. As
a Vietnam veteran and Phantom F-4 pilot, Col. Gail Peck (call-sign
‘EVIL’) had been disappointed with the level of training offered to
US fighter pilots. He was determined to ensure that US fighter
pilots were unbeatable in the air particularly against their Cold
War adversaries flying the already legendary MiG fighter jets.
Working with the support of General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr., and
under conditions of the utmost secrecy the Constant Peg program was
launched with Peck as the original ‘Red Eagle.’ Colonel (Ret.)
Gaillard R. Peck, Jr was a career officer in the United States Air
This unknown history was first revealed in Steve Davies' acclaimed Red Eagles: America's Secret MiGs but America's Secret MiG Squadron is the insider's perspective complete with never-before published anecdotes and photographs, revealing how Peck battled bureaucracy and skepticism to ultimately establish the premier fighter pilot training center. Along the way Peck explores many of the central questions surrounding the project: why did the combat Air Forces of the US find themselves in need of a major revision in their approach to air-to-air combat training? How did they secretly build an airfield to clandestinely conduct air-to-air combat training using actual MiGs as the adversary training platforms? What was it like to be a Red Eagle pilot or maintainer and what were the major challenges they faced on a daily basis? What did the USA get out of the program in terms of a return on investment? Was it worth it and where do we go now?
Despite operating for a decade, no single pilot ever revealed the secret nature of the training until the program was eventually declassified in 2006. Now for the first time readers can learn what it felt like to build the airfields, source the MiG aircraft and finally take them to the skies above America itself, all in the quest to establish the USAF as the premier fighter jet force the world over.
Readers get a rare glimpse into a unique United States Air Force combat training program and into a collection of dedicated and amazingly innovative airmen. Through these individuals' singular commitment to ‘fix’ the tactical execution failings they experienced over North Vietnam and specifically to prepare for the uncertainty of future combat, these airmen were instrumental in changing the game in America's approach to air combat. Through their focused efforts and passion to fix the failings of Vietnam, these airmen were center stage for the ‘post-Vietnam’ revolution in air combat training in the skies over the high desert of Nevada.
America's Secret MiG Squadron is the fascinating history of the men who trained to fly and maintain covertly obtained MiGs, for the first time providing an insider's perspective, personal anecdotes, and photographs, revealing how Peck battled bureaucracy and skepticism to ultimately establish the premier fighter pilot training center – the real Top Gun.
History / US / Politics & Social Sciences / Civil Rights
The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement: Civil Rights and the Johnson Administration, 1965-1968 by David C. Carter (The University of North Carolina Press)
Looking back at the crowded metaphorical palette of Lyndon Johnson's 1965 Howard University speech, images of violence and disfigurement, echoes of slavery and lynchings, stand out most vividly: Johnson had spoken of ‘open wounds,’ of the ‘scars of centuries.’ Like the remnants of the signage of segregation, like the abandoned ruins of urban unrest, scar tissue may be the most appropriate metaphor to capture the lingering impact of the misunderstandings that came to fester in the chaotic period from 1965 to 1968.
Those scars are at times livid and angry, at other times cosmetically, clumsily, concealed. Our deepest national wounds may no longer be so fresh, but our segregated memories too often divide us into ‘two nations,’ and the scars are still with us. If the ‘gates of opportunity’ appear to be open wider today than ever before in our past, we are nonetheless far from assuring that "all our citizens . . . have the ability to walk through those gates." Even in the midst of profound changes, what Lyndon Johnson hailed as "the next and ... more profound stage of the battle for civil rights" has yet to be fully joined. But if a ‘Second Reconstruction’ failed to topple the barriers to racial and economic equality in the United States, the unfinished music of the movement still lingers in our collective memory to inspire the efforts of a new generation in a third symphony of reconstruction. – from the epilogue
After the passage of sweeping civil rights and voting rights legislation in 1964 and 1965, the civil rights movement stood poised to build on considerable momentum. In a famous speech at Howard University in 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared that victory in the next battle for civil rights would be measured in ‘equal results’ rather than equal rights and opportunities. It seemed that for a brief moment the White House and champions of racial equality shared the same objectives and priorities.
David C. Carter, associate professor of history at Auburn University, in The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement reveals the complex and often tense relationships between the Johnson administration and activist groups advocating further social change.
Even as policymakers within the Johnson administration struggled to reach consensus on how to wage the battle for civil rights and economic betterment announced at Howard, however, established civil rights leaders and African American grassroots community activists were heatedly debating which strategies, tactics, and ideological moorings would best serve black Americans. Finding common ground proved elusive in a climate of growing social and political unrest marked by urban riots, the Vietnam War, and resurgent conservatism.
Examining grassroots movements and organizations and their complicated relationships with the federal government and state authorities between 1965 and 1968, Carter in The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement takes readers through the inner workings of local civil rights coalitions as they tried to maintain strength within their organizations while facing both overt and subtle opposition from state and federal officials. He also highlights internal debates and divisions within the White House and the executive branch, demonstrating that the federal government's relationship to the movement and its larger goals was never as clear-cut as the president's progressive rhetoric suggested.
Using extensive primary resources and interviews, Carter in The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement extends the traditional timeline of the civil rights movement to include the struggles that continued after passage of the Voting Rights Act. He reveals the complex and often tense relationships between the Johnson administration and activist groups advocating further social change.
According to the preface to The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement, on March 15, 1965, Lyndon Baines Johnson addressed a Joint Session of Congress to call for federally enforced voting rights legislation. He spoke just eight days after ‘Bloody Sunday,’ when Alabama state troopers, local law enforcement officials, and deputized white supremacists had brutally attacked African Americans on Selma's Edmund Pettus Bridge as they peacefully marched for voting rights. "There is no Negro problem," the president insisted in the nationally televised speech. "There is no Southern problem. There is no Northern problem. There is only an American problem." In evoking Gunnar Myrdal's 1944 characterization of race as an ‘American dilemma,’ Johnson sought to forge a national consensus on the need to eliminate discrimination at the ballot box.
Three months later, in a June 4, 1965, address at historically black Howard University, the president challenged the nation to confront the interwoven problems of poverty and discrimination that still hobbled black America. Lyndon Johnson's rhetoric committed his administration to an expanded definition of equality that promised equal results rather than simply equal opportunity. In the aftermath of the Selma beatings, Johnson's insistence that race was a national issue had seemed designed to soften the sense of regional persecution felt by many white southerners who were well aware that their region would be disproportionately affected by his call for voting rights legislation. If black Americans shared Johnson's view that racism was a national issue, however, most white Americans living north of the Mason-Dixon Line in the spring of 1965 still saw the dilemma of race as a ‘southern problem.’
Delivered during the months that are often seen as the high-water mark of the civil rights movement – and of the Johnson administration – the speech at Howard read differently in the aftermath of the Watts riots in August 1965 and during subsequent outbreaks of urban unrest. Despite several riots the previous summer in depressed inner-city neighborhoods, not until the urban explosion in the Watts area of Los Angeles did most whites appear ready to accept the president's argument that race was fundamentally an ‘American problem.
The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement builds on the work of those committed to understanding African Americans' struggles for equality as part of a ‘long civil rights movement,’ which began well before the Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board of Education landmark school desegregation ruling and which continued even through the years of white backlash and ascendant national conservatism. In contrast to the rich outpouring of studies of the civil rights movement from its earliest origins to its high tide in the first half of the 1960s, the years after 1965 have attracted far less scrutiny. Carter says he has tried to tell what he believes is a neglected story of the interactions between the local and the national during the last three years of the Johnson presidency, tracing the trajectory of executive- and bureaucratic-level action – and inaction – while also emphasizing the importance of the grass roots.
In Carter’s last chapters of The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement, he focuses on the growing importance of the Vietnam War and on the Johnson administration's attempts to understand, forestall, and, ultimately, contain urban unrest. The closing months of the Johnson administration saw a policy drift that served to widen the gap between the White House and grassroots civil rights activists. The lack of a coherent policy approach was heightened by miscommunication and a climate of distrust between policymakers and civil rights leaders. The extent of the breakdown in communication between the White House and an increasingly diverse pool of black leaders and their communities was nowhere more apparent than in the president's reaction to the findings of the Kerner Commission whose findings mirrored the concerns – and explicitly echoed the language – of Johnson's Howard University address delivered two and a half years earlier.
Whether it was the parallelism between 1965's ‘another nation’ and 1968's ‘two nations’ or the focus on race and economics with sweepingly ambitious proposed remedies to close the gap, there was a striking degree of harmony between the underlying assumptions of the Howard speech and the Kerner Commission Report. Yet the official White House response to the report – its members had all been handpicked by LBJ – was stony silence. Behind closed doors, the president angrily dismissed the report as a personal insult, a bitter response that illustrated just how much the Johnson administration's aspirations had fallen by the wayside.
By the time Lyndon Johnson announced his decision not to seek reelection later in the spring of 1968, his administration had alienated many civil rights activists, grassroots foot soldiers and national leaders alike. It had also failed to moderate white backlash, for however muddled White House efforts may appear in retrospect, by continuing the earlier search for a national consensus on how to address the perceived ‘problem’ of race the president managed to alienate both black Americans and white Americans.
David C. Carter's telling of the 1960s interplay between President Lyndon B. Johnson and the civil rights movement is a brilliant portrait of the tragic clash between the hope and idealism of the civil rights activists and the tired Cold Warriors' absurd dreams of pacifying this, that, and the other patch of Southeast Asia. Then, more dreams and hearts were broken by the series of urban riots that began in the summer of 1964 and ran through the death of Martin Luther King Jr. in April 1968. There was surely no music after that. Even a bit of money to respond to King's last campaign for Americas poor was sucked down the Vietnam drain. It was the best of times and the worst of times, and Carter's fine book surely does it justice. – Roger Wilkins; director of the U.S. Community Relations Service, 1966-69
Carter challenges conventional interpretations that suggest an inevitable downward spiral from 1965 through 1968, instead exploring the dynamic interactions between the most proactive civil rights presidency in U.S. history and heightened black protests against racial inequality. This is a compelling history of a major chapter in the political history of the civil rights movement. – Patricia A. Sullivan, University of South Carolina, author of Days of Hope: Race and Democracy in the New Deal Era
Carter makes a major contribution to the historiography of both the civil rights movement and the U.S. presidency during the 1960s. His sobering account cuts to the heart of America's racial divide. A marvelous book. – J. John Dittmer, author of Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi
Carter skillfully weaves such competing perspectives into a
narrative that explains the highly contested nature of the civil
rights movement. – North Carolina Historical Review
An important contribution to scholarship on the 1960s in America. – American Historical Review
Carter's analysis of [Lyndon B. Johnson]'s second term, especially his close attention to the details of the administration's civil rights policymaking, makes this book well worth reading…. His research, especially his use of the records of the Johnson administration, is commendable. – The Historian
Carter's thoughtful analysis ... should hit almost all of the right notes for readers interested in civil rights and the presidency in the 1960s. – The Journal of American History
An important addition to the growing literature about the civil rights movement.... Recommended. – Choice
An in-depth examination of the complicated relationship between
and within U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson's administration and
grassroots civil rights activism.... Afford[s] the reader a vision
of the complexity of those times. – Ethnic and Racial Studies
A brilliantly fascinating history of the Johnson administration ... brimming with political detail.... Meticulous in detail and covers the drama from one set piece to another and is highly recommended. – Journal of American Studies
[Carter's] combination of views from the top levels of government to the nation's poorest neighborhoods provides valuable insight into developments during these crucial few years. – Journal of Southern History
Carter in The Music Has Gone Out of the Movement tells the neglected story of the interactions between the local and the national during the last three years of the Johnson presidency, tracing the trajectory of executive- and bureaucratic-level action – and inaction – while also emphasizing the importance of the grass roots. The book reveals the complicated story, showing the roots of America’s racial divide, and recovering a major chapter in the history of the civil rights movement.
Politics & Social Sciences / Biographies & Memoirs / True Crime
The Negotiator: My Life at the Heart of the Hostage Trade by Ben Lopez (Skyhorse Publishing)
Your cell phone rings. It's an unknown number. Your heart starts to race. You don't know it yet, but your life is about to change. Someone you love, or someone you work with, has been kidnapped. – from the book
The Negotiator has been shortlisted for the 2012 Crime Writers' Association Dagger Award for Nonfiction.
In the high-stakes world of hostage negotiations, every call is a matter of life and death.
Ben Lopez spends his life traveling the world, bartering with people who value money over life. Working for governments, law enforcement agencies, multinational corporations and private clients, Lopez is an expert K&R (Kidnap and Ransom) consultant, a psychologist supplying professional kidnap-negotiation services. He can be called out to anywhere in the world within twenty-four-hour notice to set up and command the negotiator's cell, bargaining with religious fanatics, hardened criminals, and other desperate people in order to save the lives of their captives. He sleeps too little and drinks too much. Alongside a shadowy team of former spies and special operatives, his arsenal of psychological techniques is just as powerful as brute force. He'll spend as long as is necessary to get the job done. And then he'll disappear. He has to.
The Negotiator reads like a thriller – but for those involved in the stories within it, the drama and the tension are very real.
Lopez was born in New York and spent part of his childhood in Venezuela, where he witnessed firsthand the devastating effects of K&R. His work has taken him across the globe, from Mexico to the Middle East. In more than twenty years in the K&R field he has never lost a hostage. Lopez isn't his real name; if his name were known, it would be too dangerous for him to travel to many countries ever again.
In The Negotiator, Lopez tells all-too-true tales that read like something that could only be created in Hollywood. Readers travel with him from Rio de Janeiro's glamorous Copacabana neighborhood to the streets of Mexico City, from Afghanistan's notoriously violent Kandahar province to the sprawling seaport of Karachi, Pakistan. They learn what it's like to negotiate with killers while trying to determine whether the husband of a kidnap victim is truly distraught or actually in league with his wife's kidnappers.
In addition to lifting the curtain on the intricate world of K&R,
the author also sheds light on his remarkable life and how his
ongoing efforts to restore other people’s interrupted lives have
cost him personally…. Lopez (not his real name) recounts his
fascinating journey from inchoate postdoctoral candidate to
international man of mystery and intrigue with all the sinewy grit
you'd expect to find in a big-budget Hollywood movie…. Thrilling and
illuminating. – Kirkus Reviews
Gripping…. Strong suspense and drama permeate these pages of real life hostage negotiations. – Publishers Weekly
Electrifying. Gives us a real look at the unique challenges hostage negotiators face in dealing with the trauma of kidnapping. – Paul Wood, CEO, Pax Mondial Limited, Leading Risk Management Firm
The real world can be as dangerous as any fiction, and The Negotiator is an extraordinary, riveting account of the K&R underworld from someone who has experienced the danger first-hand.
Professional & Technical / Medicine / Surgery / Clinical / Ophthalmology
Essentials of Glaucoma Surgery edited by Malik Kahook MD, with associate editors John P. Berdahl, Jonathan A. Eisengart, Mahmoud A. Khaimi, Nathan M. Radcliffe, Joshua D. Stein & Jeffrey M. Zink (Slack Incorporated)
Essentials of Glaucoma Surgery provides a window into glaucoma
surgical procedures with rapid insight and ready-to-reference
information from more than 50 experienced surgeons in the
profession. This resource uses a real world approach to explain
surgical glaucoma, allowing the information to be quickly digested
and put to use by readers.
The editorial team for Essentials of Glaucoma Surgery is led by Malik Y. Kahook, MD and uses concise and straightforward text to explain surgical procedures, along with pearls of practice to augment the chapters and provide advice from the experts, thereby preparing readers for the operating room. This comprehensive handbook offers explanations of surgical instruments, expert FDA information related to current regulation of surgical devices in the United States, and an appendix of surgical dictations.
Essentials of Glaucoma Surgery also includes sections that add historical context, as well as sections with information on the regulatory environment as it relates to devices used for the surgical management of glaucoma. Additionally, a section is included that offers perspectives from renowned experts on glaucoma surgery from where it began to where the future will go.
Kahook is Professor of Ophthalmology and Director of Clinical and Translational Research in the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Colorado where he also directs the glaucoma service. Associate editors are John P. Berdahl, MD, who specializes in advanced cataract, corneal and glaucoma surgery, in addition to refractive surgery; Jonathan A. Eisengart, MD, who is on the glaucoma staff at the Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute and maintains a busy glaucoma clinical and surgical practice; Mahmoud A. Khaimi, MD, clinical assistant professor at the Dean A. McGee Eye Institute/University of Oklahoma in Oklahoma City, Director of Glaucoma Services at the Oklahoma City VA Medical Center, and Chairman of the Clinical Care Committee at the Dean McGee Eye Institute; Nathan M. Radcliffe, MD, director of the Glaucoma Service at Weill Cornell Medical College and New York Hospital; Joshua D. Stein, MD, MS, Assistant Professor on the Glaucoma Service at the University of Michigan Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences; and Jeffrey M. Zink, MD, member of the Glaucoma Service at the Cincinnati Eye Institute.
The volume is a reference that provides an introduction to the basics of glaucoma surgery while also introducing pearls collectively learned by the authors. The text is divided into sections that cover the ‘bread and butter’ of glaucoma surgery including basic anatomy, trabeculectomy, glaucoma drainage device implants, and combined procedures. The book focuses entire sections on how to handle complications of glaucoma surgery, as well as the basics of new and novel approaches recently introduced to the editors’ collective practice. There are specific sections that deal with clinical trials as well as the regulatory pathway for ophthalmic surgical devices.
The contributors to Essentials of Glaucoma Surgery are experts in their fields. Each Associate Editor brings a unique skill set to this project including expertise in basic glaucoma surgery, leadership in introducing novel surgeries to the operating room, and proficiency in dealing with the inevitable postoperative challenges.
Sections and chapters of Essentials of Glaucoma Surgery include:
Section I: Introduction to Basic Concepts of Glaucoma Surgery
Section II: Trabeculectomy
Section III: Glaucoma Drainage Device Implantation
Section IV: Glaucoma Surgery Combined with Cataract Extraction
Section V: Lasers
Section VI: Less Common Surgeries
Section VII: Surgical Management of Complicated Glaucomas
Section VIII: Novel Approaches
Section IX: Surgical Trials and Regulatory Insights
Section X: Perspectives on Surgery from the Experts
With its real-world approach, user-friendly format, expert advice, and unique point of view, practicing ophthalmologists, residents, fellows, and medical students will benefit from Essentials of Glaucoma Surgery. The book is targeted at both trainees and experienced glaucoma surgeons. Essays from senior surgeons who share their experience and insights (past, present, and future) regarding the art of treating glaucoma patients will be of immense use to both audiences.
Professional and Technical / Medicine & Allied Health / Clinical / Veterinary
Small Animal Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses edited by Linda Merrill (Wiley-Blackwell)
The scope of practice for the veterinary technician is continually evolving. This is especially true as veterinary technicians have progressed to becoming veterinary technician specialists. Lacking formal pathways to specialization, many veterinary technicians are striving to increase knowledge in their area of interest.
Small Animal Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses is the first comprehensive resource on internal medicine written for the veterinary technician. Organized by body system, each chapter discusses pertinent diseases from clinical signs, diagnostic testing, and prevalence to treatment options and nursing considerations. Published in association with the Academy of Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians, this book offers a thorough grounding in the foundations of internal medicine for students and new veterinary technicians and detailed, advanced information suitable for experienced veterinary technicians.
This textbook is divided into body systems. It includes chapters on selected aspects of neurology and cardiology as some of these areas, at times, are intimately related. Coverage includes an overview of neurological disorders and discussion of the surgical, emergency, and nursing considerations for each condition. This reference includes a companion website with quizzes, images, and video clips.
Editor Linda Merrill, LVT, VTS (Small Animal Internal Medicine, Clinical Practice) is the executive director and founding chair of the Academy of Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians and organizing committee member of the Academy of Veterinary Technicians in Clinical Practice. She is a former president of NAVTA and has nearly 30 years of practice experience in small animal, cardiology, oncology, and internal medicine.
Small Animal Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses provides veterinary technicians with the information they need and is essential reading for veterinary technician students, practicing technicians, and those studying for the AIMVT specialty exam.
Religion & Spirituality / Christianity / Ministry & Church Leadership / Sermons
The Sermons of George Whitefield (Two-Volume Set) by George Whitefield, edited by Lee Gatiss (Crossway)
George Whitefield (1714-1770) was the leading Reformed Evangelical Anglican clergyman of the eighteenth century. The driving force, humanly speaking, of evangelical revivals on both sides of the Atlantic and both North and South of Hadrian's Wall, he also made a substantial impact in Wales. He was a gigantic presence in the English-speaking church and world: dramatic and controversial, passionate and bold, heroic and flawed, adored and despised in equal measure. Yet despite the enormous influence and impact he had in his own time, today he is almost the most neglected man in the whole of church history. The ignorance concerning him is appalling.
Editor Lee Gatiss in a two-volume set, The Sermons of George Whitefield, has reproduced 57 sermons that were originally authorized to be published by Whitefield himself in the late 1700s, in addition to two sermons edited by Gatiss for Whitefield's Works, and two more that are of great importance. Gatiss, director of Church Society, visiting lecturer in church history at Wales Evangelical School of Theology, and editor of Theologian, includes careful and extensive footnotes detailing the historical and theological background to Whitefield's preaching, which puts the man and his messages into context for a new generation of readers. The text has also been updated for the twenty-first century with modern grammar, spelling, and punctuation – revised in a manner that leaves Whitefield's distinct voice intact and coherent for today’s readers.
As told in The Sermons of George Whitefield, Whitefield's father was born in Gloucester, the proprietor of the Bell Inn, though, more widely, he came from a clerical, educated, and cultured ancestry. When he was about four years old Whitefield caught measles, the cause of his lifelong squint which can be seen in the best portraits of him and later earned him the sobriquet Dr. Squintum. He matriculated at Pembroke College, Oxford, performing servile duties to pay his way through the undergraduate degree (1732-1736). During this time he was a member of the so-called `Holy Club' along with John and Charles Wesley, and was rigorously ascetic in his religious practice. Only in 1735 did he experience the freedom of new birth, an inner conversion to Christ and the gospel of grace. `God was pleased,' he wrote, `to remove the heavy load, to enable me to lay hold of his dear Son by a living faith.'
In 1736, at the tender age of only 21, he was ordained in Gloucester Cathedral. That Sunday he preached his first sermon (Sermon 8). He was for a time a chaplain at the Tower of London and preached in various churches in the City, in Hampshire, and in Gloucestershire. In 1737, having resolved to follow the Wesleys to Georgia, he preached a great many `charity sermons' in Bath, Bristol, and London to raise money for charity schools in England and Georgia. These were very successful fundraising events and churches were happy to open their pulpits to the young preacher for this purpose. He in return was often scathing about the lifeless, unspiritual nature of the clergy and their leadership, which did not always go down particularly well from one with so little experience. After his return from the first of many trips to America he found, unsurprisingly, many churches were closed to him because of this.
Perhaps inspired by the example of Howell Harris in Wales, Whitefield took to preaching instead in the open air. He met with extraordinary success. And thus he began to attract large crowds and become what Boyd Stanley Schlenther calls `the eighteenth century's most sensational preacher in Great Britain and America.' The world became his parish.
The Sermons of George Whitefield is a brand new edition of volumes five and six of the 1771-1772 set of Whitefield's complete works published by Gatiss, plus some bonus material and the added value of extensive footnotes.
Seventy-nine sermons by Whitefield are said to have been printed in total, but he himself only authorized fifty-seven for the press and was reluctant to allow others into print. For example, in a letter dated September 26th 1769 he complains, 'I wish you had advertised against the publisher of my last sermon. It is not verbatim as I delivered it. In some places, he makes me to speak false concord, and even nonsense. In others, the sense and connection are destroyed, by the injudicious disjointed paragraphs; and the whole is entirely unfit for the public review.'
The Sermons of George Whitefield includes the fifty-seven sermons published by Whitefield himself, plus two others (Sermons 58 and 59) which were authorized to appear in 1772 but are not found in selections since then. To this have been added two further sermons (Sermons 60 and 61) which are of great theological and historical interest. Parts of Sermon 61 appeared in Select Sermons of George Whitefield but important chunks of that sermon were omitted. It is often thought, for example, that when Whitefield crossed the Atlantic for the thirteenth time in 1769 he intended it to be his final farewell to old England, since he did in fact die in Massachusetts a year later. Yet reading the full text of Sermon 61, readers discover the truth. He went to establish his orphan house academy as a college, intending it to become another Harvard or Yale, then to do some preaching on the East Coast, but then finally, `to return to my dear London and English friends again.' He mentions plans to provide a bolt hole for evangelicals in America should the persecution and opposition in England prove too hot in future, but he had by no means decided to leave England for good. His American ministry is extremely important, and we should be grateful for the way in which American friends have kept his name alive; but Anglican Evangelicals in old England should have no qualms about reclaiming Whitefield for themselves.
Conscious of Whitefield's annoyance at injudicious editors Gatiss has been careful at every stage to ensure Whitefield can be understood properly by a modern audience without false concord, nonsense, or disjointed paragraphs. Some of the original punctuation and paragraphing was frankly bizarre and has been altered. Gatiss also updates grammar, spelling, and syntax in such a gentle way that Whitefield still speaks with an eighteenth century voice and yet is coherent and clear for today's readers. The King James Version of the Bible has been retained except in those places where it was too quaint or obscure to contemporary ears, and then a light touch only has been applied to compensate for this.
Even casual readers will quickly discover just how soaked in the Bible this preacher was. It was once said that John Bunyan's blood was bibline, and it is clear that Whitefield shared this happy but uncommon condition, dropping allusions and quotations from all over the Bible into his preaching with great frequency.
Most importantly, the reason for making this edition of Whitefield's sermons available again in this format is that we need a heavy dose of his theology, we need his inspiration, and we need his urgent international vision for evangelism, working with others of like mind whatever denomination they may be but without compromising the precious truths of the gospel. If The Sermons of George Whitefield stimulate such efforts and provoke and equip others to study George Whitefield more deeply, then they will have been worth the effort. Whitefield's legacy is not institutional like Wesley's; his orphan house never became a college to rival Yale or Harvard much as he wanted it to. He wrote no great hymns like Toplady or Watts. His legacy is in his sermons and in the effect he had on others in his day, both in the Church of England and among the dissenting denominations. He showed them that Reformation theology could be allied to passionate appeal and radical methods of evangelism. His legacy is that a generation of Evangelicals, not least Anglican Evangelicals, grew up with that confidence and were emboldened to imitate his faith and patience. We are beneficiaries of that.
George Whitefield was undoubtedly one of the greatest preachers of the modern Christian era, yet today he remains strangely neglected, even among evangelical Christians. Lee Gatiss’s excellent edition of Whitefield’s sermons will alleviate some of this undeserved obscurity. Pastors, professors, and laypeople would all do well to reflect on these sermons, which more than any other earthly force helped stir the massive revivals of the Great Awakening. – Thomas S. Kidd, Associate Professor of History, Baylor University; author, The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America
Lee Gatiss has done us a service – dusting off, tidying up, and re-presenting Whitefield’s electric preaching to a new age. Gatiss’s introduction to the sermons is worth the price of the volumes alone. My prayer is that these sermons will raise up, and stir up, a generation to preach with gospel fire. Amen and Amen. – Josh Moody, Senior Pastor, College Church, Wheaton, Illinois; author of The God-Centered Life: Insights from Jonathan Edwards
George Whitefield has impacted my life and ministry more than I could ever measure. I could not be more excited about these sermons being back in print. One can only pray that the same Lord who used these sermons to shake the world so long ago will give us another Great Awakening through them. Whitefield’s own prayer for these sermons would surely accord with what he said when he gave the leadership of the Methodist movement to Wesley, 'Let the name of Whitefield perish, if only the name of Christ be glorified.’ – Jason C. Meyer, Associate Pastor for Preaching and Vision, Bethlehem Baptist Church, Minneapolis
I have read some comments on the printed sermons of Whitefield that say these sermons don't translate well to the written medium. Well, I am sure it would have been amazing to hear him preach; but, given that, I find the written sermons to have an intrinsic fervor, power, clarity, and theological pungency that still leaps off the page into the conscience and affections in a gripping and edifying way. – Tom J. Nettles, Professor of Historical Theology, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
Finally, the powerful and passionate preaching that set the world on fire in the Great Awakening is available to all in The Sermons of George Whitefield.
Religion & Spirituality / Christianity / Old Testament / Theology
Genesis 1-11 edited by John Lee Thompson, with general editor Timothy George (Reformation Commentary on Scripture: Old Testament Series: IVP Academic)
The story described in the first pages of Scripture, from magnificent creation to the fall of mankind and back to the promise of redemption, was the reformers' anchor in their teaching and study. In Genesis 1-11 in the Reformation Commentary on Scripture (RCS) series, editor John L. Thompson gathers together an impressive variety of commentators who apply these ancient texts to the turbulent age of the Reformation. Thompson is professor of historical theology and Galen and Susan Byker Professor of Reformed Theology at Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena,
The first chapters of Genesis are the bedrock of the Jewish and Christian traditions. In these inaugural pages, the creation of the world, the fall of the human creature, the promise of redemption and the beginning of salvation history are found. Interwoven in the text are memorable stories of the ancient biblical patriarchs and matriarchs. Throughout the history of commentary, interpreters have lavished attention on the rich passages recounting the six days of creation, the tragic fall of God's creature – from the expulsion of the first parents to Cain's fratricide and the catastrophe of the Flood – as well as the allegorical sign of hope in the ark of Noah. Commentators in the Reformation continued this venerable tradition of detailed focus on these primordial stories, finding themselves and their era deeply connected to the tragedies and promises, the genealogies and marvels of God's providential election and governance. Above all, Reformation-era interpreters found anchor for their teaching, preaching and hope in the promise of Christ running through these first chapters, from creation to the calling of Abraham. While following the precedent of patristic and medieval commentators on Scripture, as well as Rabbinic midrash, the Reformers provide insightful and startling fresh readings of familiar passages, inviting readers to see the ancient text with new eyes. Thompson in Genesis 1-11 collects the comments of not only the monumental thinkers like Luther, Calvin and Melancthon, but also many important figures of the time who are lesser-known today. Readers find rich fare from Johannes Brenz, Wolfgang Capito, Hans Denck, Wolfgang Musculus, Johannes Oecolampadius and Peter Martyr Vermigli. Readers encounter comments from many perspectives, from the magisterial Reformers to radical Protestants like Balthasar Hubmaier, Menno Simons, Pilgram Marpeck and Dirk Philips, as well as some Catholic thinkers, such as Desiderius Erasmus and Cardinal Cajetan. Important contributions from female voices, like Katharina Schütz Zell and Anna Maria van Schurman are included. The wealth of Reformation interpretation is brought together in Genesis 1-11 for study and reflection, much appearing in English for the first time.
Reformation commentators continued the church's venerable practice of lavishing attention on Genesis, feeling themselves and their era deeply connected to the tragedies and promises, the genealogies and marvels of God's providential creation, governance and judgment. Above all, Reformation-era interpreters found anchor for their teaching, preaching and hope in the promise of Christ running through these chapters of Genesis, from the Garden of Eden to the Tower of Babel.
"This volume marries rigorous scholarship with deep pastoral instincts," says Brannon Ellis, project editor for the RCS. "The reformers were first and foremost ministers of the Word, and this volume is testimony to the reality that the most concrete, practical applications of the biblical text in everyday life are often those that most successfully transcend their own places and times."
And, in a unique aspect of this volume, Genesis 1-11 includes poetry and sixteenth-century charts alongside the expected commentaries and sermons. This addition provides a sense of how the reformers approached the biblical text, offering modern-day readers multiple ways of appropriating the fruits of their work today.
The Reformation Commentary on Scripture is a major publishing event – for those with historical interest in the founding convictions of Protestantism, but even more for those who care about understanding the Bible.... [T]his effort brings flesh and blood to `the communion of saints' by letting believers of our day look over the shoulders of giants from the past. By connecting the past with the present, and by doing so with the Bible at the center, the editors of this series perform a great service for the church. The series deserves the widest possible support. – Mark A. Noll, Francis A. McAnaney Professor of History, University of Notre Dame
Why was this not done before? ... This commentary series brings the very best of the Reformation heritage to the task of exegesis and exposition, and each volume in this series represents a veritable feast that takes us back to the sixteenth century to enrich the preaching and teaching of God's Word in our own time. – R. Albert Mohler Jr., president, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
I heartily recommend this series as a tremendous resource not only for ministry but for personal edification. – Michael S. Horton, J. G, Machen Professor of Systematic Theology and Apologetics, Westminster Seminary, California
For folks interested in reception history and historical theology, these volumes are sheer gold. – Michael F. Bird, lecturer in theology and New Testament, Crossway College, Australia
Following the critical success of the Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture series, the multi-volume biblical commentary Reformation Commentary of Scripture (RCS): Old Testament Series is an important step in a churchwide effort of retrieval. Each volume features a mix of major and minor voices from the era, with many texts appearing for the first time in English. Projected to be a twenty-eight-volume biblical commentary, the series puts the words of the reformers directly into the hands of the contemporary church. Incorporating the accurate and readable text of the English Standard Version of the Bible (ESV), these volumes assemble exegetical and theological comment on the entire canon of Scripture by a vast array of Reformation-era thinkers and leaders. The series boasts internationally recognized scholars of the history and theology of the Reformation as translators and editors, whose aim is to retrieve the wisdom of the Reformers for the renewal of the church today.
Genesis 1-11, featuring a team of world-class Reformation scholars, provides a wealth of perspectives from many different Reformation voices, perspectives that are accurate and readable, insightful and startling.
Religion & Spirituality / Christianity / Science
Seven Glorious Days: A Scientist Retells the Genesis Creation Story by Karl W. Giberson (Paraclete Press)
Using biblical imagery and vivid metaphors, popular author and leading science-and-religion scholar Karl Giberson recasts the Genesis creation story within the framework of the latest ideas from modern science. Seven Glorious Days takes readers on a grand ride through the history of the universe from the Big Bang, to the origin of stars and planets, to the appearance of living creatures bearing the image of God and living in community. Giberson, a physicist and scholar, teaches science and religion at Stonehill College in Easton, Massachusetts and lectures all over the world.
Giberson says he grew up in a religious tradition that taught him to read the Bible literally and accept its statements at face value. He headed off to college in 1975 hoping to become a champion of creationism and a fearless crusader against scientific theories like the big bang and evolution – manmade theories that foolishly presumed to challenge the story that God had provided in the Bible.
While studying science at Eastern Nazarene College near Boston he became convinced that the scientific explanations for our origins were true. The biblical account, read literally, simply could not be reconciled with the facts that science was discovering. It had to be reinterpreted. Like many Christians who discover this, he found a way to move past his biblical literalism. He accepted that the Genesis story was best understood as a theological statement about the relationship between God and the Creation, not a modern scientific account. This timeless theological truth, unfortunately, was presented in the context of an ancient worldview that contained ideas about nature – like the sky being solid or the moon having its own light – that we have long since abandoned.
Preserving the ancient science of the Genesis creation story in the face of what science has discovered makes it look tarnished, like it is showing its age. The story's once-vibrant colors can seem faded and scratched by the clinical, mathematical, and coldly rational tools of modern science. However, the secular scientific story we live with today has lost its power to move us because it seems opaque and impersonal, with no natural place for us. But humans need more than a mechanical story about how the gears and pulleys of the cosmos pulled life up out of the primordial ooze. We need a robust, full-orbed creation story, with a place for us.
According to Giberson in Seven Glorious Days, since his college days, which were followed by a stint earning a PhD, he has spent over a quarter century teaching science to Christian college students. He has come to appreciate just how tragic it is that so many young people believe they have to accept the ancient worldview in Genesis as an accurate description of the world of today. So many times he has wondered what the Genesis story would look like if we could update it with the science of today – replacing the seven days of creation with billions of years and recasting the whole story in the context of modern science.
Giberson says he offers Seven Glorious Days as a literary exercise in what the Genesis story might look like if we could update it with the wisdom and latest understanding gained from modern science. He rewrites the text of the first chapter in the Bible, which he understands is expressly forbidden somewhere in the book of Revelation. In so doing he brings modern science to bear on the story of creation. He also reshapes the scientific story of our origins as if it was the story of how God created the world, and not merely an account of natural history. This means, of course, that a purposeful thread runs through natural history from the moment of big bang into the present and beyond.
Retelling the scientific story was an exercise in selection. He says he had to pick those parts of the scientific story that fit together most naturally with our story – how the remarkable human species came to be. He discusses at length how atoms originated – since humans are made of atoms – but he says nothing about the origin of galaxies or black holes, which play a more limited role in the origin of humans. He also doesn't take up controversial topics like the existence of life on other planets, or the possibility of other universes. If there are other universes, or creatures in other parts of this universe, then they have their own creation stories.
The biblical creation story says nothing about how God actually creates. "Let there be ..." is presented as an authoritative divine command that brings things into existence. The science of the last couple of centuries has established that nature is filled with processes that do creative work. In Seven Glorious Days, he locates God's creativity within the natural order, collaborating with those laws, rather than working apart from them. If parts of his discussion seem to omit reference to God it is only because he intends readers to understand that God is working through all of the processes. He thinks it is important that we do not treat nature as if God does some things supernaturally while allowing the rest of nature to proceed on its own, without God's involvement.
To resonate with the biblical account, Giberson has divided creation into seven ‘epochs,’ each with a major theme and each representing an important stage in the history of the universe. There is no scientific basis whatsoever for a seven-fold division. What he presents in Seven Glorious Days, however, is at least consistent with how the scientific story appears in terms of the sequence of events. As the epochs unfold he highlights the relevance of the trajectory as creation moves toward human life and its remarkable capacities for love. Not surprisingly, perhaps, he treats the emergence of love in its many manifestations as the central purpose of creation.
The story told in Seven Glorious Days is inspired by the Judeo-Christian creation story, but he does not intend by this emphasis to belittle or demean other creation stories. Seven Glorious Days is about the Judeo-Christian story in the light of contemporary science and does not venture outside that paradigm. Other creation stories deserve their own treatments from writers familiar with those traditions.
The story is summarized at the beginning, alternating between the new ‘biblical’ description and the scientific content of each of the seven epochs of creation, and then he fills in the details in the chapters that follow.
A deeply inspiring overview of the grand epic of cosmic,
biological, and cultural evolution written for Christians and
grounded in scientific revelation. Bravo! – Michael Dowd, author of
Thank God for Evolution
Karl Giberson has made wise and creative use of his skills as both a scientist and a sophisticated student of biblical religion in this well-informed, theologically sensitive introduction to the wonders of creation. – John F. Haught, senior fellow in science and religion, Woodstock Theological Center, Georgetown University
Giberson’s ability to translate the complex insights of physics, cosmology, and biology into terms that ordinary Christians can grasp is matched only by his ability to express deep religious convictions in simple and direct language. – Stephen J. Pope, professor of Theological Ethics, Boston College
Insightful, informed, playful, stimulating, and impressive, Giberson argues convincingly that the earth is not a mere blue dot in the vast emptiness of space, but the most astonishing known seat of creativity and information. – Owen Gingerich, professor emeritus of Astronomy and History of Science, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
In Seven Glorious Days, the narrative is both accessible and lively, affirming of Christian faith. Readers eager to resolve the tensions between science and religion will welcome their harmonious convergence in this timely and provocative work.
Religion & Spirituality / Christianity / Social Justice
Christian Social Teachings: A Reader in Christian Social Ethics from the Bible to the Present, 2nd edition edited by George W. Forell, revised by James M. Childs (Fortress Press)
Christian Social Teachings is a classic collection of Christian statements on social ethics, now fully revised and updated, providing a panoramic view of the two-thousand-year development of Christian concerns for political justice, war and peace, church and state, science, sexuality, environmentalism, 'social and economic liberation, and other ‘worldly’ issues. In readings drawn from the Bible to church fathers to Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Martin Luther King Jr. to leading contemporary voices, these substantial excerpts enable students to see the flow of Christian thought and appreciate the deeper religious context for addressing today's most pressing problems.
Author George W. Forell (1919-2011) was the Carver Distinguished Professor Emeritus in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Iowa and James M. Childs is Senior Research Professor at Trinity Lutheran Seminary, Columbus.
Features of Christian Social Teachings include:
• More than 100 classic and contemporary readings.
• Historically arranged; includes a detailed chart for a thematic approach.
• Context-developing chapter openers and notes for each reading.
• Updated bibliography, suggested reading lists, and index.
This new edition of Christian Social Teachings has a good deal of new introductory commentary, and newer translations of older works have been used where available and helpful. A large portion of this expanded edition is the material representative of Christian social teaching since the publication of the original volume
There are, of course, many perspectives on matters of Christian ethics that have remained unchanged in the faith and practice of Christian communities. These convictions should be evident in the texts when the book is viewed as a whole. At the same time, new and influential contributions to social ethics have come about in response to changing cultural and political realities. The new selections have been chosen to reflect those developments. In making these new selections Childs says he choose those thinkers whose work has been well-established enough to claim a place in the emerging ‘history’ of the discourse. Such a judgment may seem presumptuous but it also seems unavoidable. Additionally, Childs pays appropriate attention to ecclesial and ecumenical sources that claim to represent the voice of the larger community of faith. Finally, the new selections have been made following the principle that they represent ‘social’ teaching; ethical concerns that speak to the ethos of a society and may also have implications for public policy even as they give expression to the churches' witness for justice and peace.
Childs in Christian Social Teachings has included three tools for navigating and locating the content of the many readings. First, the table of contents includes authors' names and titles of selections in several cases, for easy identification and later reference. Second, the thematic organization of sources provides key themes and topics and their location among the numerous readings in the anthology. Third, unlike the vast number of anthologies for any discipline, especially religious studies and theology, an index is provided to assist readers in finding additional themes or subjects (for example, atonement, covenant, sacrifice), as well as important titles or selections (for example, The Ten Commandments, The Beatitudes), for ready reference.
George W. Forell's classic book has come to life once again thanks to the outstanding revision and updating by James M. Childs. This book, with its impressive breadth, depth, and ecumenical sensitivity, provides a unique source for giving students access to the most significant texts in Christian social ethics from the Bible to the present day. – Charles Curran, Perkins School of Theology
Notwithstanding Forell's clear identity as a Lutheran ethicist, the wide scope of his grasp and appreciation of the multiple traditions of Christian thought and ethics is amply illustrated by the discerning selections in the original version of this book. In addition, the selection of new readings provides leading and important voices on major themes as routinely covered in college and university courses. The three compilations of the anthology's content enhance the use of Christian Social Teachings.
Religion & Spirituality / Christianity / Social Justice / Environmentalism
Option for the Poor and for the Earth: Catholic Social Teaching by Donal Dorr (Orbis Books)
This classic on Catholic social teaching with an emphasis on the
option for the poor and economic inequality has been expanded to
include Catholic teaching on care for the environment. Donal Dorr
demonstrates the development of these different areas of Catholic
social teaching over time, highlighting their strengths and
Expanded and revised, Option for the Poor and for the Earth includes five new chapters. The first deals extensively with the issue of the equality and complementarity of women. The next is a lengthy and quite critical examination of Pope Benedict’s first encyclical, Deus caritas est. The next two chapters deal with his encyclical Caritas in veritate and the follow-up to it in the document from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Towards Reforming the International Financial and Monetary Systems in the Context of Global Public Authority. The last of the new chapters is an extended examination of the issue of ecology as it has been treated in documents from the Vatican over half a century.
Dorr is a theologian and missionary priest with wide experience of teaching and of animating marginalized groups. A former holder of a research fellowship in the theology of development, he has served as a consultor to the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace and as a resource person for the Irish Missionary Union.
More than one-third of the contents of Option for the Poor and for the Earth (approximately 200 pages) are entirely new. The remaining material is an updated and at times radically changed version of the material in Option for the Poor: A Hundred Years of Vatican Social Teaching, the last edition of which was published just twenty years ago. The present book covers a period of 133 years, rather than a hundred years. Furthermore, Dorr says, it has become clearer in the intervening years that there is an inseparable link between an option for the poor and an option for the Earth; so Dorr has greatly expanded his treatment of the ecological issue. As well as adding five new chapters, Dorr reduced the material of the first five chapters of the previous book to three chapters in order to keep the book within a reasonable length. He has expanded his treatment of the document "Justice in the World," issued by the synod of bishops in 1971, because he considers it to be exceptionally important; it now forms a separate chapter. The document "Evangelization in the Modern World" now also has a chapter to itself. And he has expanded, corrected, and rewritten much of the material in all of the other chapters, taking account of more recent research and of his reflection in the intervening years.
Option for the Poor and for the Earth traces the historical development of the social teaching of the Catholic Church from the time of Pope Leo XIII up to the end of 2011. However, the book is much more than a history. It can be used as a textbook about the main themes of social justice, a better way of learning about social justice, and of teaching it, than if one were to adopt a schematic or systematic approach that divides the material under headings and subheadings. This book explains how the different themes emerged at different periods of the Church's recent history and how Church authorities attempted, with varying success, to deal with them. It discusses the major issues not just as items of past history, but also in the light of the way these issues confront us today as contemporary challenges.
Twenty years ago Donal Dorr wrote Option for the Poor: A Hundred Years of Vatican Social Teaching. It became, rightly, an instant classic on the topic. His revised, up‑dated and re-edited version of it, Option for the Poor and for the Earth is truly magisterial. He includes not only social encyclicals but the various addresses of the popes on social issues. He appreciates the decided strengths of Catholic social teaching but also points out its inconsistencies and weaknesses. I think it is the indispensable tool for anyone wanting to know the thrust, direction, inner tensions, and strengths of Catholic social teaching. In my estimation this new book simply has no real peer. – John A. Coleman, SJ, Loyola Marymount University
For two decades Option for the Poor has been the reference point for all those interested in Catholic social justice. This new and updated edition ... captures the complexity of the new challenges that we face, and provides a wake-up call for global citizens concerned about the future of humanity and of our environment. – Linda Hogan, Trinity College, Dublin
Dorr once again takes up the issues of social justice with this major revision of his classic critique of the evolution of the pope’s doctrines, Option for the Poor and for the Earth, adding years and his new thoughts about caring about the environment. An excellent choice on Catholic social teaching in all its ramifications.
Blood, Sweat and Tears – The Changing Concepts of Physiology from Antiquity into Early Modern Europe edited by Manfred Horstmanshoff, Helen King and Claus Zittel, with general editor Karl A.E. Enenkel (Intersections: Interdisciplinary Studies in Early Modern Culture Series, Volume 25: Brill)
Essentials of Glaucoma Surgery edited by Malik Kahook MD, with associate editors John P. Berdahl, Jonathan A. Eisengart, Mahmoud A. Khaimi, Nathan M. Radcliffe, Joshua D. Stein & Jeffrey M. Zink (Slack Incorporated)